QlikView Set Analysis – How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

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1. QlikView Set Analysis – Objective

Now that we have gained a fundamental knowledge of creating and viewing different kinds of sheet objects in QlikView. We will now learn about some table manipulation functions called QlikView Set Analysis and Concatenation. Moreover, we will discuss set analysis expression and how to apply the QlikView set analysis function. Along with this, we will cover different types of QlikView concatenation.

These functions prove to be very practical and time-saving when you work with huge amounts of data and complex tables.

So, let’s start QlikView Set Analysis and concatenation.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

QlikView Set Analysis – How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

2. What is QlikView Set Analysis?

QlikView set analysis is a way of sorting and arranging data into different sets in the form of sheet objects. The name set analysis is given because it provides better ways of analyzing any given data set by segregating and structuring the data into tables and charts. The QlikView set analysis provides a context of analysis to a pre-defined or selected set of data.

You can also turn off the association of a table with other so that it doesn’t change its values upon making a selection on other tables. As we have seen in the ‘Dashboard’ tutorial and several others, that every QlikView document and every sheet by default operates as per the associative model of data. During the QlikView set analysis, you have the option of deactivating the association between tables and change the dynamic relationship between them into a static one.

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3. QlikView Set Expression and its Components

The expression which defines the set analysis for a sheet object (charts, tables, lists etc) has a fixed syntax to it. There are two rules for QlikView set analysis expression i.e. the set expression is always written in the closed curly brackets {} and every set expression must only use an aggregate function like Sum, Avg, Count, Mix, Max etc.

The QlikView set expression consists of three components.

  • Identifier
  • Operator
  • Modifier
QlikView Set Expression and its Components

QlikView Set Expression and its Components

Let us understand each of the components in further detail.

In the image shown above is a sample set expression where the set expression is


QlikView Set Analysis & Expression - Concatenate in QlikView

QlikView Set Expression and its Components

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i. Identifier

The identifier instructs the system as to what set of data is to be evaluated for set analysis in QlikView. There are different types of identifiers, using which you can specify which set of data records should the operations apply on.

  • 0 is for an empty set having no records.
  • 1 is for a set having all the values present in the record.
  • $ is used for the values of the current selection.
  • $1 is used for values of the previous selection.
  • $_1 is for values of the next selection.

ii. Operator

The operators are used to establish and define a relation between identifiers (if more than one identifier is used). The operators are used to perform mathematical operations on the selected set of data. Take a look at the operator used in our example i.e. – and it is used between two identifiers 1 and $. This expression ‘1-$’ translates to; subtract the current selections (represented by $) from the entire record (represented by 1) and take the resultant set of data, i.e. the data values which are not active in the current selection.

There are different types of operators.

  • + i.e. a Union operator returns a union of sets.
  • – i.e. an Exclusion operator returns the excluded sets.
  • * known as the Intersection operator returns the data sets from both the identifiers.
  • / called the Symmetric Difference operator which returns the data set from only one side of the two identifiers.

iii. Modifier

Modifiers contain fields that are can replace the current selection fields. That is the purpose of the modifiers i.e. to update or make changes in the selections. Such fields (one or more) can be written in the set expression under closed angle <> brackets with a selection criterion. In our sample, the modifier is <Year={2012}>. Hence, in a way, modifiers specify the fields or records to be selected furthermore. Suppose in our set analysis expression, we have instructed the logic to select only the values of Year fields and the values related to it. But, using the set expression, we will narrow this selection down for the operations to be performed on only the values for the year 2012.

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4. How to Apply QlikView Set Analysis Function on Data?

Let us learn how to deactivate the association step by step:


Select the input data you wish to work with. We have used a CSV file on store product details.

Product_Id,Product_Line,Product_category,Product_quantity,Product_cost,Store Location, City

pr1,Sporting Goods,Winter Sports & Activities,34,18000,USA,New York

pr2,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Fruits & Vegetables,76,7000,USA,New York

pr3,Apparel & Accessories,Uniforms,59,20000,India,Mumbai

pr4,Sporting Goods,Rugby,25,8458,Canada,Ontario

pr5,Health & Beauty,Body Lotion,44,5500,USA,San Fransisco

pr6,Arts & Entertainment,Musical Instruments,20,25000,Germany,Berlin

pr7,Arts & Entertainment,Orchestra Accessories,15,6700,Canada,Toronto

pr8,Arts & Entertainment,Crafting Materials,67,4200,India,Bangalore

pr9,Hardware,Power Tool Batteries,74,3600,UK,London

pr10,Home & Garden,Bath Caddies,66,2000,Germany,Berlin

pr11,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Frozen Vegetables,56,5800,USA,Denver

pr12,Home & Garden,Power Equipment,87,6300,UK,Glasgow

pr13,Home & Garden,Water hose,42,7465,UK,Manchester

pr14,Health & Beauty,Aloevera Gel,46,4852,USA,Dallas

pr15,Health & Beauty,Face pack,52,5673,India,Delhi

pr16,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Cereals,49,6480,Canada,Montreal

pr17,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Fruit juices,58,4900,Australia,Melbourne

pr18,Sporting Goods,Football,40,5250,USA,Michigan


After selecting the data file from the source through the INSERT option given in the script editor, load the file. The script will look something like the one shown below with details of the data file you upload. Save this script and click OK to exit the script editor.

LOAD Product_Id,
     [Store Location],
(txt, codepage is 1252, embedded labels, delimiter is ',', msq);

Follow this link to know about QlikView Publisher Repository (QVPR)


Reload the script by CTRL+R and create a table box, list box and straight table chart to display the information.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView


As you can see in the screenshot attached, we have created three sheet objects as mentioned above. First is a table box names ‘Store Details’ displaying all the fields. Next to it is a list box ‘Country’ showing the name of all the countries that is in the store’s information data. The third table, ‘cost sum’ is a straight table chart object showing the sum of the cost of products in each product line.


All these three sheets objects are associative in nature to one another as the values within them will change as per the selections made in any one of the three sheet objects. Like, we have selected on ‘USA’ in the list box and both the rest of the boxes will also instantly filter their information to only that related to the USA. This is a typical example of data association.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

QlikView Set Analysis – ASSCIATIVE OBJECTS

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You can disable this sheet association by right-clicking on the straight table chart (‘cost sum’ in our example). In the drop-down list, you will see an option CLONE. Click on CLONE and a new copy of the table will be made.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView


Right click on the cloned table and go to the Expressions tab if you wish to apply any specific functions and condition on data. We have put a condition so that it only shows the cost sum for stores in the USA.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView


Now, after applying the desired conditions when we make a selection in any of the three tables except for the cloned one, no changes will be made in the cloned table.

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As you can see in the screenshot attached below when we selected the UK from the country list, the other two tables filtered its information for the UK but the cloned table remained the same.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView


5. Define Concatenate in QlikView

QlikView comes with a feature ‘Concatenate’ which is used to join two tables together. The tables you wish to join might be a part of the same data information or be completely different in the context of data. Irrespective of column name or number, you can join tables using the concatenate function. This process is known as concatenation in QlikView.

i. How to Use QlikView Concatenation Function?

In order to apply the QlikView concatenate function, we first need to load the data files into QlikView’s script hence memory.

The sample data files we are using are two tables namely, Sale sold and Salesnew which has data related to sales information of a general store. The old table is of the month January and the new table is of the month February. We wish to join these two through QlikView concatenation.

  • Salesold

Product_Id,Product_Line,Product_category,Product_quantity,Product_cost,Store Location, City,Month

pr1,Sporting Goods,Winter Sports & Activities,34,18000,USA,New York,January

pr2,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Fruits & Vegetables,76,7000,USA,New York,January

pr3,Apparel & Accessories,Uniforms,59,20000,India,Mumbai,January

pr4,Sporting Goods,Rugby,25,8458,Canada,Ontario,January

pr5,Health & Beauty,Body lotion,44,5500,USA,San Fransisco ,January

pr6,Arts & Entertainment,Musical Instruments,20,25000,Germany,Berlin,January

pr7,Arts & Entertainment,Orchestra Accessories,15,6700,Canada,Toronto,January

pr8,Arts & Entertainment,Crafting Materials,67,4200,India,Bangalore,January

pr9,Hardware,Power Tool Batteries,74,3600,UK,London,January

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  • Salesnew

Product_Id,Product_Line,Product_category,Product_quantity,Product_cost,Store Location, City,Month

pr10,Home & Garden,Bath Caddies,66,2000,Germany,Berlin,February

pr11,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Frozen Vegetables,56,5800,USA,Denver,February

pr12,Home & Garden,Power Equipment,87,6300,UK,Glasgow,February

pr13,Home & Garden,Water hose,42,7465,UK,Manchester,February

pr14,Health & Beauty,Aloevera Gel,46,4852,USA,Dallas,February

pr15,Health & Beauty,Face pack,52,5673,India,Delhi,February

pr16,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Cereals,49,6480,Canada,Montreal,February

pr17,”Food, Beverages & Tobacco”,Fruit juices,58,4900,Australia,Melbourne,February

pr18,Sporting Goods,Football,40,5250,USA,Michigan,February

After loading the delimited files into QlikView’s script, we apply the ‘Concatenate’ function.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

Image.1 How to Use Concatenate in QlikView

Save the script and click OK to exit the script loader. Reload the script and go to LAYOUT or right-click anywhere on the sheet to create a Table Box.

The fields from both the tables will be available to put in the table box. Choose accordingly.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

Image.2 How to Use Concatenate in QlikView

Click OK to view the table.

QlikView Set Analysis - How to Define Concatenate in QlikView

Image.3 How to Use Concatenate in QlikView

As shown in the screenshot above, both the Sale sold and Salesnew table got concatenated or joined to form a completely new table.

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6. Types of Concatenation in QlikView

QlikView Concatenation can be done in three ways, which are;

i. Automatic Concatenation

In automatic concatenation in QlikView, the tables (two or more) having same fields names or number, concatenator to from a single table automatically. The number of records in the concatenated table are equal to the sum of records in all the tables which were concatenated.

ii. Forced Concatenation

Forced concatenation in QlikView is done when the tables subjected to concatenation do not have matching field names or numbers. If the user still wishes to concatenate such tables, it could be done forcefully by using the ‘Concatenate’ keyword before the LOAD statement.

iii. No Concatenation

As we saw in the automatic concatenation that if two or more than two tables save similar field names or number, they are automatically concatenated without user’s permission in QlikView. To prevent this from happening, users must use the keyword ‘NoConcatenate’ in the script.

So, this was all about QlikView Set Analysis. Hope you like our explanation.

7. Conclusion

Hence, both the QlikView set analysis function and concatenation function carry their own significance. With the help of set analysis, you can compare data information very easily by making any table and its information static in nature keeping others associative or dynamic. And the QlikView concatenation feature is we saw is a simple useful tool to collected related or unrelated information in order to make it more comprehensive. Furthermore, if you have any query, feel free to ask in the comment section.

Related Topic – QlikView Server Load Sharing


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1 Response

  1. Johan Kassing says:

    Thank you very much for this information. What a great blog!!

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