Python Tutorial for Beginners – Introduction to Python 23


1. Python Tutorial

In this Python tutorial, we will learn about the introduction to Python programming, Python features, an overview of Python architecture, and Python applications in real industry. We will also learn about available python frameworks like Django, Flask, Pyramid etc.

The transition from consuming games and web apps to being the one behind them is exciting. Imagine if, with one technology, you could create all that? The world would be at your fingertips. Well, what if we told you that it’s possible? 1991 changed a lot of things for the programming industry and many others. We’re talking about Python programming, a friendly general-purpose programming language. And in a world of machine learning, Python is here to stay. So let us start with Python tutorial.

 

python tutorial

Python Tutorial

Read: Python V/s Java

2. Python Tutorial – What is Python?

Let us start this python tutorial with ‘What is Python?’

Python is an object-oriented language, which means that it can model real-world objects. It is also dynamically-typed because it carries out type-checking at runtime. It does so to make sure that the type of a construct matches what we expect in that context. The distinctive feature about Python is that it is an interpreted language. The Python IDLE (Integrated DeveLopment Environment) executes instructions a line at a time.

Etymology states that Guido van Rossum named it after the comedy group Monty Python. That is why the metasyntactic variables used here are ‘spam’ and ‘eggs’ instead of ‘foo’ and ‘bar’. Unlike as expected, it does not refer to the reptile species. A lot of implementations today run version 2.x, but the future belongs to Python 3.x. It is also called ‘Python 3000’ or ‘Py3K’. CPython, written in C, is the most common implementation of Python. It compiles a Python program into intermediate bytecode.

Apart from the constructs that Python provides, you can use the PyPI (Python Package Index). It is a repository of third-party modules, you can install it using a program called pip. Run the following command in Command Prompt:

pip install library_name

Python or R: To learn the difference between Python and R, please follow Python vs R. For now let is move ahead with the current python tutorial.

Read: Comments, Indentations and Statements in Python

3. Python History

Python programming language was conceived in the late 1980s and was named for the BBC TV show Monty Python’s Flying Circus. Guido van Rossum started python implementation at CWI in the Netherlands in December 1989. This was a successor to the ABC (programming language) which was capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.

On October 16, 2000, python 2.0 release was there and it had many major new features, that includes cycle-detecting garbage collector for memory management and support for Unicode.

Next version of Python 3.0 was released on December 3, 2008.

Now we know how Python came to the picture. Now let us jump to the Python Architecture in this Python Tutorial.

Read: Real World Applications of Python

4. Architecture

This is the architecture of a CPython Compiler/Interpreter.

a. Parser

It uses the source code to generate an abstract syntax tree.

b. Compiler

It turns the abstract syntax tree into Python byte code.

c. Interpreter

It executes the code line by line.

In the below topic of python tutorial, we will cover the components of python programming language.

Read: Pros and Cons of Python

5. Components of Python

a. Functions

A function is a collection of statements named into one. You can use it when you want to execute all those statements at a time. You can call it wherever you want in a program. A function may return a value.

b. Classes

As we discussed, Python is an object-oriented language. It supports classes and objects. A class is an abstract data type. In other words, it is a blueprint for an object of a certain kind. It holds no values.

c. Modules

A Python module is a collection of related classes and functions. We have modules for mathematical calculations, string manipulations, web programming, and many more.

d. Packages

A package is a collection of related modules. You can either import a package or create your own.

Now let us learn about the features of Python in this python tutorial. Based on these features you will be able to choose a programming language for your new project.

Read: Python Career Opportunities

6. Features of Python

Python is one of the richest language, in this python tutorial we will discuss several features of python:

Python Tutorial - Features of Python

Python Tutorial – Features of Python

a. Easy

Python is very easy to learn and understand, using this python tutorial any beginner can understand basics of python.

b. Interpreted

It is interpreted(executed) line by line. This makes it easy to test and debug.

c. Object-Oriented

It supports classes and objects.

d. Free and Open Source

The language and its source code are available to the public for free, no need to buy a costly license.

e. Portable

You can run Python on Windows, Mac, Linux or any other platform.

f. GUI Programming

You can use it to develop a Graphical User Interface.

g. Large Library

Python provides you with a large standard library. You can use it to implement a variety of functions.

Read more about the features of Python in Detail in another of out Python tutorial on features of Python.

Now in This Python Tutorial let us see the Frameworks available in Python.

Read: Python Oprators

7. Frameworks available in Python

Python Tutorial - Python Frameworks

Python Tutorial – Python Frameworks

a. Django

This is a free and open-source framework that was written in Python and is the most common framework for Python. It allows you to create database-driven websites. It follows the DRY Principle (Don’t Repeat Yourself). Popular websites like Instagram, Mozilla, and Disqus make use of it.

b. Flask

Like Django, Flask is a web framework written in Python. It is a micro framework because it does not need certain libraries and tools. It also does not have form validation or a database abstraction layer. However, you can make use of extensions to add extra features.

c. Pyramid

Pyramid is another web framework. It is neither a mega-framework that would make decisions for you nor a micro-framework that wouldn’t force decisions. It gives you optimal liberty on your project.

d. Tornado

Another open-source web framework, it was written in Python. It is noted for its excellent performance and scalability.

e. Bottle

Like Flask, it is a micro-framework for Python. It is used for web development. Bottle is known for its speed, simplicity, and light-weight. A single file can run both Python 2.5+ and 3.x

f. web2py

Written in Python, web2py is another open source web framework. It emphasizes on rapid development, and follows an MVC architecture. MVC stands for Model View Controller.

g. NumPy

NumPy is an open-source framework for Python. It is used for scientific computing. It supports large multidimensional arrays and matrices, and functions to operate on them.

h. SciPy

SciPy is a Python library that you can use for scientific computing. It has modules for linear algebra, interpolation, fast Fourier transform, image processing, and many more. It uses a multidimensional array from the NumPy module.

i. Pylons

This is a deprecated framework, which means it is no longer recommended. It is a web framework, and is open source as well. It makes extensive use of third-party tools.

Next chapter in the Python tutorial is the different Flavors of Python.

Read: Python Variables and Data Types

8. Flavors of Python

Python Tutorial - Python Flavors types

Python Tutorial – Python Flavors types

a. CPython

This is the most widely accepted implementation of Python. It is written in the language C, and is an interpreter.

b. Jython

Jython is a Python implementation written in Java. A Jython program can import any Java class. It compiles to Java bytecode.

c. IronPython

IronPython is implemented in C#. It can function as an extensibility layer to application frameworks written in a .NET language.

d. Brython

Brython stands for Browser Python. It is an implementation of Python that runs in the browser.

e. RubyPython

It acts as a bridge between the Python and Ruby interpreters. It marshals data between Python and Ruby virtual machines.

f. PyPy

It is interesting to know that PyPy is Python implemented in Python. This makes it faster and easier to experiment with. However, the standard implementation is CPython.

g. MicroPython

This is an implementation of Python meant to run on a microcontroller. It uses a MicroPython board that runs MicroPython on bare metal.

Lets also see some Python File Extensions in this Python Tutorial

Read: Best Python Books

9. Python File Extensions

  • py -The normal extension for a Python source file
  • pyc- The compiled bytecode
  • pyd- A Windows DLL file
  • pyo- A file created with optimizations
  • pyw- Python script for Windows
  • pyz- Python script archive

In this python tutorial we will also try to answer some of your questions regarding python, one of which is: Why should I learn Python.

10. Why should I learn Python?

Python is easy to pick-up, even if you come from a non-programming background. You can look at the code and tell what’s going on. With it, you can:

  • Build a website
  • Develop a game
  • Perform Computer Vision (Facilities like face-detection and color-detection)
  • Do Machine Learning (Giving a computer the ability to learn)
  • Enable Robotics
  • Perform Web Scraping (Harvesting data from websites)
  • Perform Data Analysis
  • Automate a web browser
  • Perform Scripting
  • Perform Scientific Computing
  • Build Artificial Intelligence

Install Python Now to start playing with the python programming language

Python isn’t limited to these applications. If you’ve ever used services from brands like YouTube, Dropbox, and Netflix, then you’ve used Python. The search-engine Google also made great use of the language in its initial stages.

When writing code in Python, you need fewer lines of code. This high-level language is also open-source and free. It is among the major programming languages with the fastest growth. So if you plan to make a career out of it, you’re lucky to be born in the 21st century.

To make you more clear about the python programming language we have covered how Python is different from other programming languages like Java or C++. Lets see how python is different from Java and C in this Python Tutorial.

11. How is Python different from Java or C++?

Python uses whitespace indentation to delimit code, so you don’t need to use curly braces for that. Also, semicolons are optional. Both following syntax are correct:

a = 7

print(a)

a = 7;

print(a)

While Java and C++ are statically-typed, Python is dynamically-typed. You also don’t need to declare the type of a variable; you assign it:

life=42

Java is faster by a few seconds, but the difference does not invalidate Python’s advantages over it. Since you can interpret Python, code is easier to test and debug. Next topic in this Python Tutorial is Python Constructs.

12. Python Constructs

a. List

You can think of a list as a collection of values. Declare in the CSV (Comma-Separated Values) format. and delimit by square brackets:

life = [‘love’, ‘wisdom’, ‘anxiety’];

arity = [1,2,3];

Notice that we do not declare the type for the list either. A list may also contain elements of different types, and the indexing begins at 0:

person = [‘firstname’, 21];

print(person[1])

This prints 21 to the screen.

You can also slice lists; slicing is a way of retrieving values from it. We will learn more about it in further lessons.

b. Tuple

A tuple is like a list, but it is immutable (you cannot change its values).

pizza = (‘base’, ‘sauce’, ‘cheese’, ‘mushroom’);

pizza[3] = ‘jalapeno’

This raises a TypeError.

c. Dictionary

A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. Declare it using curly braces, and commas to separate key-value pairs. Also, separate values from keys using a colon (:).

student = {‘Name’: ‘Abc’, ‘Age’: 21}

print(student[‘Age’])

This prints 21 to the screen.

d. Comments and Docstrings-

Declare comments using an octothorpe (#). However, Python does not support multiline comments. Also, docstrings are documentation strings that help explain code.

#This is a comment

“””

This is a docstring

“””

A lot of other constructs are also available. These include control structures, functions, exceptions, etc. which will be discussed in further tutorials

This is all about the python tutorial. Lets come to the conclusion.

Read: Python Syntax and Semantics for Beginners

13. Conclusion: Python Tutorial

Finally, we saw introduction to python tutorial, what we can do with Python, and how python is different from C++ or Java. We also looked at a few constructs in Python. Python also facilitates files, classes and objects, and regular expressions. We will discuss those in further lessons. Hope you enjoyed the briefing. Indeed, Python is a beautiful language, and we wish to see you create.

Do share your valuable feedback for this python tutorial.

If you like this python tutorial or found any issues, please let us know by leaving a comment below.

Reference:

https://www.python.org/


23 thoughts on “Python Tutorial for Beginners – Introduction to Python

    • Data Flair Post author

      L. Auslender
      Most welcome
      Hope you liked this Python Tutorial. For more articles on Python, keep visiting DataFlair. We will happy to help you.

  • Chandresh Bhatt

    d. Free and Open Source
    The language and its source code are available to the public for free, need to buy a costly license.

    It should be,
    d. Free and Open Source
    The language and its source code are available to the public for free, no need to buy a costly license.

    • Data Flair Post author

      We are glad that you like our article on Python tutorial. For more Python Learning follow our series of Python Tutorial. You will definitely learn something new in Python.

  • hayat

    Hi,

    you have mention python does not support multiline comments…. is this correct.

    Declare comments using an octothorpe (#). However, Python does not support multiline comments. Also, docstrings are documentation strings that help explain code.

    • Data Flair Post author

      Venkat
      Thank You for your appreciation. This Python tutorial is specially designed for Python beginners by Python Experts. Although you enjoyed Python Tutorial, we recommend you to read more Python Articles. Surely, you will enjoy them also.

  • Krutarth Pujara

    At the end of every article withing a tutorial, there should be a next button that can take us to the next page and a previous button too.

    • Data Flair Post author

      Krutarth, thanks for commenting on our Python Tutorial and giving us such a wonderful suggestion. We are working on it. Till then, you can check the next and previous blogs with the help of the sidebar provided on the top left corner. Hope this will help you check all the blogs related to Python Technology.

  • nisha

    Great stuff, just great,
    After reading this post, even a non-programmer might jump on to learning Python. 🙂 Anyways, I’m completely convinced with the points mentioned by the author. And in my views, the most striking point about Python is its clean and easy-to-use coding syntax. Thank you for sharing

    • Data Flair Post author

      Indeed. The conciseness and simplicity of Python, besides its powerfulness, are what make it so popular among first learners.

      Well, thank you so much, Nisha for giving such a fab review on our Python Tutorial. If you like our blog, then you must visit the next blog in Python. We will help you to cover all Python topics with the same quality of learning material. You can check more Python blog on our site.

      Giving you a link, for moving a step ahead with Python
      https://data-flair.training/blogs/python-career-opportunities/

  • Subir Dutta

    Data Flair has provided a very high quality contents for learning technologies.
    The contents are much better than paid tutorials.
    A very big thank you and regards to the team.
    Subir Dutta

    • Data Flair Post author

      Hii Subir
      Thank you for complimenting Data Flair. We are sharing all this stuff just for our readers. We have collected all this Python content from different sources, checked this twice before publishing it so that our end user won’t face any problem. Your feedback on Python Tutorial means a lot to us. You can check more Python blogs on our website, surely you will enjoy them too.
      Best wishes from Data Flair.
      Keep Reading, Keep Learning

    • Data Flair Post author

      Thanks a lot, Hari,
      We hope you learned all the Python basics with this Python Tutorial and surely you want to explore more in Python. We have published a series of Python which is completely free for our readers. Definitely, you will get more new things. We recommend you to check this Python new Python Applications –
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  • Bineeta Parmar

    Thanks for sharing. As in a part of Python Development services, it gives me more encouragement to work further with more enthusiasm.

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