Python Tutorial for Beginners – Learn Python Programming

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Welcome to the World of Python. Are you eager to know and learn Python – The Most Powerful and Popular Programming Langauge? Then start with this Python Tutorial now.

Here is a quick overview of what you are going to learn today in this Python Introduction- 

  • What is Python? 
  • Python History 
  • Features of Python
  • Applications  of Python
  • Architecture and Working of Python
  • Python Constructs
  • Python vs Java vs C++

Do not forget to check frequently asked interview questions from this topic at the end.

What is Python?

Python is a General Purpose object-oriented programming language, which means that it can model real-world entities. It is also dynamically-typed because it carries out type-checking at runtime.

It does so to make sure that the type of construct matches what we expect it to be.

The distinctive feature of Python is that it is an interpreted language.

The Python IDLE (Integrated Development Environment) executes instructions one line at a time. This also lets us use it as a calculator.

Why is it called Python?

Guido van Rossum named it after the comedy group Monty Python. That is why the metasyntactic variables (those we will often use to explain code syntax) used here are ‘spam’ and ‘eggs’ instead of ‘foo’ and ‘bar’.

History of Python

History of Python

 

  • Python was conceived in the late 1980s and was named after the BBC TV show Monty Python’s Flying Circus.
  • Guido van Rossum started implementing Python at CWI in the Netherlands in December of 1989.
  • This was a successor to the ABC programming language which was capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
  • On October 16 of 2000, Python 2.0 released with many new features.
  • Then Python 3.0 released on December 3, 2008.

Why Learn Python?

Python is the “most powerful language you can still read”, Says Paul Dubois

Python is one of the richest Programming languages.

Going by the TIOBE Index, it is the Second Most Popular Programming Language in the world.

This makes a career in Python a great choice.

Python Features

Let us now see various features of Python that make it so powerful and popular:

Python features

 

a. Easy

Python is very easy to learn and understand; any beginner can learn Python easily. When writing code in Python, you need fewer lines of code compared to languages like Java.

b. Interpreted

It is interpreted(executed) line by line. This makes it easy to test and debug.

c. Object-Oriented

The Python programming language supports classes and objects and hence it is object-oriented.

d. Free and Open Source

The language and its source code are available to the public for free; there is no need to buy a costly license.

e. Portable

Since Python is open-source, you can run it on Windows, Mac, Linux or any other platform. Your programs will work without any need to change it for every machine.

f. GUI Programming

You can use it to develop a GUI (Graphical User Interface). One way to do this is through Tkinter.

g. Large Python Library

Python provides you with a large standard library.

You can use it to implement a variety of functions without the need to reinvent the wheel every time. Just pick the code you need and continue.

In this Python tutorial, we have provided a short description. You must read them in detail at  Python Programming Features

Applications of Python

Python is easy to pick-up even if you come from a non-programming background. You can look at the code and tell what’s going on.

Talking of Python applications, some of the cool things that you can do are –

  • Build a website using Python
  • Develop a game in Python
  • Perform Computer Vision (Facilities like face-detection and color-detection)
  • Implement Machine Learning (Give a computer the ability to learn)
  • Enable Robotics with Python
  • Perform Web Scraping (Harvest data from websites)
  • Perform Data Analysis using Python
  • Automate a web browser
  • Perform Scripting in Python
  • Perform Scientific Computing using Python
  • Build Artificial Intelligence

Python isn’t limited to these applications. If you’ve ever used services from brands like YouTube, Dropbox, and Netflix, then you’ve been a consumer of Python.

The search-engine Google also made great use of this language in its initial stages.

Python Architecture and Working

Let’s now talk about Python architecture and its usual flow –

a. Parser

It uses the source code to generate an abstract syntax tree.

b. Compiler

It turns the abstract syntax tree into Python bytecode.

c. Interpreter

It executes the code line by line in a REPL (Read-Evaluate-Print-Loop) fashion.

Python Constructs

a. Functions in Python

A function in Python is a collection of statements grouped under a name. You can use it whenever you want to execute all those statements at a time.

You can call it wherever you want and as many times as you want in a program. A function may return a value.

b. Classes in Python

As we discussed earlier, Python is an object-oriented language. It supports classes and objects.

A class is an abstract data type. In other words, it is a blueprint for an object of a certain kind. It holds no values.

An object is a real-world entity and an instance of a class.

c. Modules in Python

Python module is a collection of related classes and functions.

We have modules for mathematical calculations, string manipulations, web programming, and many more.

d. Packages in Python

Python package is a collection of related modules. You can either import a package or create your own.

e. List in Python

You can think of a list as a collection of values. Declared in the CSV (Comma-Separated Values) format and delimit using square brackets:

life = [‘love’, ‘wisdom’, ‘anxiety’];
arity = [1,2,3];

Notice that we do not declare the type for the list either. A list may also contain elements of different types, and the indexing begins at 0:

person = [‘firstname’, 21];
print(person[1])

Output: 21

You can also slice lists; slicing is a way of retrieving some values from it. We will learn more about it in further lessons.

f. Tuple in Python

A tuple is like a list, but it is immutable (you cannot change its values).

pizza = (‘base’, ‘sauce’, ‘cheese’, ‘mushroom’);
pizza[3] = ‘jalapeno’

This raises a TypeError.

g. Dictionary in Python

A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. Declare it using curly braces, and commas to separate key-value pairs.

Also, separate values from keys using a colon (:).

student = {‘Name’: ‘Abc’, ‘Age’: 21}
print(student[‘Age’])

Output: 21

h. Comments and Docstrings in Python

Declare comments using an octothorpe (#). However, Python does not support multiline comments.

Docstrings are documentation strings that help explain the code.

#This is a comment
“““
This is a docstring
”””

Python has a lot of other constructs. These include control structures, functions, exceptions, etc.

Python vs Java vs C++

python vs java vs c++

Python uses whitespace indentation to delimit code, you don’t need to use curly braces for that.

Also, semicolons are optional. It has two correct syntaxes:

a = 7
print(a)
a = 7;
print(a)

While Java and C++ are statically-typed, Python is dynamically-typed. You also don’t need to declare the type of a variable; you assign it:

life=42

Java is faster by a few seconds, but the difference does not invalidate Python’s advantages over it.

Since you can interpret Python, the code is easier to test and debug.

Interested in learning python in detail? Just follow the sidebar and learn Python completely.

Python Interview Questions for Beginners

Below are some of the frequently asked Python Interview questions from this tutorial:

  1. How does Python get its name?
  2. What are the Features of Python that make it so popular?
  3. Define Modules in Python?
  4. What is the difference between List and Tuple in Python?
  5. Compare Python with Java

Summary

This was all about Python Tutorial where you learnt what is python, why python is so powerful, what are the applications of Python and basic architecture and constructs of python.

78 Responses

  1. parul rajput says:

    thanks for your efforts.
    i am learing python last 3months,at this time i am able to write code in python.
    after learning this language,i feel good.
    i study all the topics in detail and if i found anything related to python,i read it.
    after reading data on many websites related to Python,i found that your efforts are best than any other website.
    i am thankful for read this.
    thanku team of dataflair,because of you i learn so many concepts.

  2. BrianB says:

    Thanks Team Data Flair, I’m keen in Python and your style of tutoring is easy, comprehensive and detailed.

    Is there any consolidated version of this tutorial that I easily use off line?

  3. Tirumalkumar says:

    very very thanks to you for the information keep writing …

  4. Alphonse Aka says:

    salut à l’équipe de DATA FLAIR , je me nomme Alphonse , je suis un développeur web en python et d’autres langages , j’aime le langage python depuis 1 an , je suis un amoureux de ce langage qui m’a permis de réaliser des applications web avec son Framework Django et je continue toujours à apprendre le python , c’est meilleur et très bon pour nous les mathématiciens et les physiciens car je suis aussi un formateur en maths et en physique chimie , je m’apprête à faire mon portfolio avec python et django , merci beaucoup pour vos cours , ils sont excellents et meilleurs , que le bon DIEU vous bénisse et vous donne tout ce que votre cœur désire et que Python continue d’avancer et mon objectif qui soit le meilleur des langages dans le monde entier , merci et bonne soirée à l’équipe data Flair.

  5. Beerendar says:

    I want to become a python developer, to code in backend server of every application (web, mobile etc).

    Please guide me with how do i begin?

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Will suggest you to take our free Python Course where you will find videos explaining the concepts, PPTS for the same, Practicals and Projects. Just search DataFlair Python course on Google and enroll there using coupon code “DATAFLAIR_PYTHON”. You will get lifetime access to the course.

  6. BLESSING says:

    I’m a regulatory Affairs expert (in a pharmaceutical industry ) do I need to learn python and what’s the benefit in my field of work

  7. Adesina Adegbemile says:

    Your selflessness is inspiring. Doing all these for free. I’m so proud of your humanity. I have been trying to have a head start in Python with no results until I stumbled on this great Tutorial. Thank you.

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Thanks for your kind words. These mean a lot to us. Will continue to provide free resources for more technologies and non-tech stuff as well.

      Regarding Python, you can easily learn it through our free Python course which is a blend of theory, practicals and projects. Just search DataFlair Python course on Google and enroll freely for the course.

  8. sebastian says:

    A really beginner friendly tutorial and the way information is provided feels almost something exclusive and paid. A great job by data flair team on such a good tutorial for beginners like me.

  9. Shiva says:

    hi,

    i am beginner in learning python. i joined in a startup where i want to learn all myself and to develop the applications. please help me out how to Move to beginner level to advance level.

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Python is a very easy language to learn. You can easily learn it through our free Python course which is a blend of theory, practicals and projects. Just search DataFlair Python course on Google and enroll freely for the course.

  10. Rose says:

    Hello. I want to learn python to do a project in artificial intelligence involving ANN and computer vision. How can I proceed. Thank you for your consideration

  11. Bhagyashree Kumbhale says:

    I want to learn python for data science

  12. princewill felix says:

    any video please

  13. Jon Biddell says:

    I’ve just started learning Python (will me mainly on Linux, until I get the basics down and then on the work Windows laptop), and I have to say this is one of the easiest to read and follow tutorialsd I have ever used – and at 62, that is one hell of a lot.

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