# Kernel Functions-Introduction to SVM Kernel & Examples

## 1. Objective

In our previous **Machine Learning** blog we have discussed about **SVM (Support Vector Machine)** in Machine Learning. Now we are going to provide you a detailed description of SVM Kernel and Different Kernel Functions and its examples such as linear, nonlinear, polynomial, Gaussian kernel, Radial basis function (RBF), sigmoid etc.

## 2. SVM Kernel Functions

SVM algorithms use a set of mathematical functions that are defined as the kernel. The function of kernel is to take data as input and transform it into the required form. Different SVM algorithms use different types of kernel functions. These functions can be different types. For example* linear, nonlinear, polynomial, radial basis function (RBF), and sigmoid.*

Introduce Kernel functions for sequence data, graphs, text, images, as well as vectors. The most used type of kernel function is **RBF.** Because it has localized and finite response along the entire x-axis.

The kernel functions return the inner product between two points in a suitable feature space. Thus by defining a notion of similarity, with little computational cost even in very high-dimensional spaces.

## 3. Kernel Rules

Define kernel or a window function as follows:

This value of this function is 1 inside the closed ball of radius 1 centered at the origin, and 0 otherwise . As shown in the figure below:

For a fixed xi, the function is K(z-xi)/h) = 1 inside the closed ball of radius h centered at xi, and 0 otherwise as shown in the figure below:

So, by choosing the argument of K(·), you have moved the window to be centered at the point xi and to be of radius h.

## 4. Examples of SVM Kernels

Let us see some common kernels used with SVMs and their uses:

### 4.1. Polynomial kernel

It is popular in image processing.

Equation is:

where d is the degree of the polynomial.

### 4.2. Gaussian kernel

It is a general-purpose kernel; used when there is no prior knowledge about the data. Equation is:

### 4.3. Gaussian radial basis function (RBF)

It is a general-purpose kernel; used when there is no prior knowledge about the data.

Equation is:

, for:

Sometimes parametrized using:

### 4.4. Laplace RBF kernel

It is general-purpose kernel; used when there is no prior knowledge about the data.

Equation is:

### 4.5. Hyperbolic tangent kernel

We can use it in neural networks.

Equation is:

, for some (not every) k>0 and c<0.

### 4.6. Sigmoid kernel

We can use it as the proxy for neural networks. Equation is

### 4.7. Bessel function of the first kind Kernel

We can use it to remove the cross term in mathematical functions. Equation is :

where j is the Bessel function of first kind.

### 4.8. ANOVA radial basis kernel

We can use it in regression problems. Equation is:

### 4.9. Linear splines kernel in one-dimension

It is useful when dealing with large sparse data vectors. It is often used in text categorization. The splines kernel also performs well in regression problems. Equation is:

If you have any query about SVM Kernel Functions, So feel free to share with us. We will be glad to solve your queries.

**See Also-**

**Reference – Machine Learning**

How the optimum input data set is decided?

When the input data is not characterized for information content say as in Principal Component Analysis, how the hyperplanes spoken of in SVM can be of utility?

Can the Kernal functions add new information into the system?

For any input space, how do you decide that the number of variables construed are efficient and not redundant data leading to fudging of the solution?

Very nice information about kernel it is very informative blog.

Hi Niaz,

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Regards,

Dataflair

in the gaussian kernel function, what x and y represents?

Hi Dereje,

In Gaussian Kernel Function, x and y are the two feature vectors in the input space whose Euclidean Distance is calculated. Hope, it helps!

Can anyone help me in writing Python Code for SVM with Multiple Kernels

I do not understand how SVM works could you give me some best clue with example. the example should be a real data set for example how can i classify new articles using SVM.

To develop new kernel,what are needed?

Which of the following statements about Kernel Functions are TRUE? Assume, in each case,that the vector x has 2 dimensions??

1.The implicit vector transformation for the kernel K(x,x′)=(1+)4 has 9 dimensions

2.The implicit vector transformation for the kernel K(x,x′)=tanh() has ∞ dimensions

3.both (a) and (b)

4. neither (a) nor (b)

very informative blog ,thanks

Thanks for the appreciation. Keep visiting DataFlair for regular updates.

I am trying to apply SVM using modified gaussian kernel where the modified kernel is given by: K*Krbf.

Kernel K is 1/Euclidean distance

I have X = [-1 -1; -1 1; 1 1;1 -1] , Y = [1;-1;1;-1] and polynomial kernel K (x , x_2) = (x_1^Tx_2 + 1)^2 in such scenario how can I find kernel matrix in the hard margin dual SVM with mathematically?

hi

may i know the svm in regression in detailed