Project in Python – Colour Detection using Pandas & OpenCV

Python Project on Color Detection

Today’s project will be exciting and fun to build. We will be working with colors and you will get to learn about many concepts throughout this project. Colour detection is necessary to recognize objects, it is also used as a tool in various image editing and drawing apps.

This is the 10th project in the DataFlair’s series of 20 Python projects. I suggest you to bookmark the previous projects:

  1. Fake News Detection Python Project
  2. Parkinson’s Disease Detection Python Project
  3. Color Detection Python Project
  4. Speech Emotion Recognition Python Project
  5. Breast Cancer Classification Python Project
  6. Age and Gender Detection Python Project
  7. Handwritten Digit Recognition Python Project
  8. Chatbot Python Project
  9. Driver Drowsiness Detection Python Project
  10. Traffic Signs Recognition Python Project
  11. Image Caption Generator Python Project

What is Colour Detection?

Colour detection is the process of detecting the name of any color. Simple isn’t it? Well, for humans this is an extremely easy task but for computers, it is not straightforward. Human eyes and brains work together to translate light into color. Light receptors that are present in our eyes transmit the signal to the brain. Our brain then recognizes the color. Since childhood, we have mapped certain lights with their color names. We will be using the somewhat same strategy to detect color names.

color detection project in python

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About the Python Project

In this color detection Python project, we are going to build an application through which you can automatically get the name of the color by clicking on them. So for this, we will have a data file that contains the color name and its values. Then we will calculate the distance from each color and find the shortest one.

The Dataset

Colors are made up of 3 primary colors; red, green, and blue. In computers, we define each color value within a range of 0 to 255. So in how many ways we can define a color? The answer is 256*256*256 = 16,581,375. There are approximately 16.5 million different ways to represent a color. In our dataset, we need to map each color’s values with their corresponding names. But don’t worry, we don’t need to map all the values. We will be using a dataset that contains RGB values with their corresponding names. The CSV file for our dataset has been taken from this link:

Colors Dataset

The colors.csv file includes 865 color names along with their RGB and hex values.


Before starting with this Python project with source code, you should be familiar with the computer vision library of Python that is OpenCV and Pandas.

OpenCV, Pandas, and numpy are the Python packages that are necessary for this project in Python. To install them, simply run this pip command in your terminal:

pip install opencv-python numpy pandas

Steps for Building a Project in Python – Color Detection

Here are the steps to build an application in Python that can detect colors:

1. Download and unzip the zip file

Color Detection Zip File

The project folder contains 3 files:

  • – main source code of our project.
  • Colorpic.jpg – sample image for experimenting.
  • Colors.csv – a file that contains our dataset.

2. Taking an image from the user

We are using argparse library to create an argument parser. We can directly give an image path from the command prompt:

import argparse

ap = argparse.ArgumentParser()
ap.add_argument('-i', '--image', required=True, help="Image Path")
args = vars(ap.parse_args())
img_path = args['image']
#Reading image with opencv
img = cv2.imread(img_path)

3. Next, we read the CSV file with pandas

The pandas library is very useful when we need to perform various operations on data files like CSV. pd.read_csv() reads the CSV file and loads it into the pandas DataFrame. We have assigned each column with a name for easy accessing.

#Reading csv file with pandas and giving names to each column
csv = pd.read_csv('colors.csv', names=index, header=None)

4. Set a mouse callback event on a window

First, we created a window in which the input image will display. Then, we set a callback function which will be called when a mouse event happens.


With these lines, we named our window as ‘image’ and set a callback function which will call the draw_function() whenever a mouse event occurs.

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5. Create the draw_function

It will calculate the rgb values of the pixel which we double click. The function parameters have the event name, (x,y) coordinates of the mouse position, etc. In the function, we check if the event is double-clicked then we calculate and set the r,g,b values along with x,y positions of the mouse.

def draw_function(event, x,y,flags,param):
    if event == cv2.EVENT_LBUTTONDBLCLK:
        global b,g,r,xpos,ypos, clicked
        clicked = True
        xpos = x
        ypos = y
        b,g,r = img[y,x]
        b = int(b)
        g = int(g)
        r = int(r)

6. Calculate distance to get color name

We have the r,g and b values. Now, we need another function which will return us the color name from RGB values. To get the color name, we calculate a distance(d) which tells us how close we are to color and choose the one having minimum distance.

Our distance is calculated by this formula:

d = abs(Red – ithRedColor) + (Green – ithGreenColor) + (Blue – ithBlueColor)

def getColorName(R,G,B):
    minimum = 10000
    for i in range(len(csv)):
        d = abs(R- int(csv.loc[i,"R"])) + abs(G- int(csv.loc[i,"G"]))+ abs(B- int(csv.loc[i,"B"]))
            minimum = d
            cname = csv.loc[i,"color_name"]
    return cname

7. Display image on the window

Whenever a double click event occurs, it will update the color name and RGB values on the window.

Using the cv2.imshow() function, we draw the image on the window. When the user double clicks the window, we draw a rectangle and get the color name to draw text on the window using cv2.rectangle and cv2.putText() functions.

    if (clicked):
        #cv2.rectangle(image, startpoint, endpoint, color, thickness) -1 thickness fills rectangle entirely
        cv2.rectangle(img,(20,20), (750,60), (b,g,r), -1)

        #Creating text string to display ( Color name and RGB values )
        text = getColorName(r,g,b) + ' R='+ str(r) + ' G='+ str(g) + ' B='+ str(b)

        #cv2.putText(img,text,start,font(0-7), fontScale, color, thickness, lineType, (optional bottomLeft bool) )
        cv2.putText(img, text,(50,50),2,0.8,(255,255,255),2,cv2.LINE_AA)
  #For very light colours we will display text in black colour
            cv2.putText(img, text,(50,50),2,0.8,(0,0,0),2,cv2.LINE_AA)


    #Break the loop when user hits 'esc' key 
    if cv2.waitKey(20) & 0xFF ==27:


8. Run Python File

The beginner Python project is now complete, you can run the Python file from the command prompt. Make sure to give an image path using ‘-i’ argument. If the image is in another directory, then you need to give full path of the image:

python -i <add your image path here>

running python mini project


import cv2 - python mini project

def getColorName - project in python

while (1) python data science project


Double click on the window to know the name of the pixel color

red color detection - python mini project

yellow color detection - python project with source code

blue color detection - python mini project


In this Python project with source code, we learned about colors and how we can extract color RGB values and the color name of a pixel. We learned how to handle events like double-clicking on the window and saw how to read CSV files with pandas and perform operations on data. This is used in numerous image editing and drawing apps.

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Hope you enjoyed building this project and keep visiting for more cool projects.

97 Responses


    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “C:\Users\Charles Aravind\Desktop\python-project-color-detection\”, line 1, in
    import cv2
    ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘cv2’

  2. isha says:

    Can you tell what kind of algorithms is used?
    What is the role of Pandas and Open CV can you please explain?

  3. Santosini says:

    How can we found its report nd presentation

  4. niel bautisat says:

    usage: [-h] -i IMAGE error: the following arguments are required: -i/–image
    An exception has occurred, use %tb to see the full traceback.

    SystemExit: 2

    wht is this??

  5. Kabeer says:

    Hey how can you change the imagine like you gave a sample one in the source but if we wanna put another
    how do you do that?

  6. Binod says:

    While running use “-i filename.jpg”

  7. Aayush Wadhwa says:

    i am trying to run the file in vs code.It shows no problems and also does not do anything the terminal is empty

  8. Aayush Wadhwa says: error: the following arguments are required: -i/–image

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