Project in Python – Colour Detection using Pandas & OpenCV

Python Project on Color Detection

Today’s project will be exciting and fun to build. We will be working with colors and you will get to learn about many concepts throughout this project. Colour detection is necessary to recognize objects, it is also used as a tool in various image editing and drawing apps.

This is the 10th project in the DataFlair’s series of 20 Python projects. I suggest you to bookmark the previous projects:

  1. Fake News Detection Python Project
  2. Parkinson’s Disease Detection Python Project
  3. Color Detection Python Project
  4. Speech Emotion Recognition Python Project
  5. Breast Cancer Classification Python Project
  6. Age and Gender Detection Python Project
  7. Handwritten Digit Recognition Python Project
  8. Chatbot Python Project
  9. Driver Drowsiness Detection Python Project
  10. Traffic Signs Recognition Python Project
  11. Image Caption Generator Python Project

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What is Colour Detection?

Colour detection is the process of detecting the name of any color. Simple isn’t it? Well, for humans this is an extremely easy task but for computers, it is not straightforward. Human eyes and brains work together to translate light into color. Light receptors that are present in our eyes transmit the signal to the brain. Our brain then recognizes the color. Since childhood, we have mapped certain lights with their color names. We will be using the somewhat same strategy to detect color names.

color detection project in python

About the Python Project

In this color detection Python project, we are going to build an application through which you can automatically get the name of the color by clicking on them. So for this, we will have a data file that contains the color name and its values. Then we will calculate the distance from each color and find the shortest one.

The Dataset

Colors are made up of 3 primary colors; red, green, and blue. In computers, we define each color value within a range of 0 to 255. So in how many ways we can define a color? The answer is 256*256*256 = 16,581,375. There are approximately 16.5 million different ways to represent a color. In our dataset, we need to map each color’s values with their corresponding names. But don’t worry, we don’t need to map all the values. We will be using a dataset that contains RGB values with their corresponding names. The CSV file for our dataset has been taken from this link:

Colors Dataset

The colors.csv file includes 865 color names along with their RGB and hex values.

Prerequisites

Before starting with this Python project with source code, you should be familiar with the computer vision library of Python that is OpenCV and Pandas.

OpenCV, Pandas, and numpy are the Python packages that are necessary for this project in Python. To install them, simply run this pip command in your terminal:

pip install opencv-python numpy pandas

Steps for Building a Project in Python – Color Detection

Here are the steps to build an application in Python that can detect colors:

1. Download and unzip the zip file

Color Detection Zip File

The project folder contains 3 files:

  • Color_detection.py – main source code of our project.
  • Colorpic.jpg – sample image for experimenting.
  • Colors.csv – a file that contains our dataset.

2. Taking an image from the user

We are using argparse library to create an argument parser. We can directly give an image path from the command prompt:

import argparse

ap = argparse.ArgumentParser()
ap.add_argument('-i', '--image', required=True, help="Image Path")
args = vars(ap.parse_args())
img_path = args['image']
#Reading image with opencv
img = cv2.imread(img_path)

3. Next, we read the CSV file with pandas

The pandas library is very useful when we need to perform various operations on data files like CSV. pd.read_csv() reads the CSV file and loads it into the pandas DataFrame. We have assigned each column with a name for easy accessing.

#Reading csv file with pandas and giving names to each column
index=["color","color_name","hex","R","G","B"]
csv = pd.read_csv('colors.csv', names=index, header=None)

4. Set a mouse callback event on a window

First, we created a window in which the input image will display. Then, we set a callback function which will be called when a mouse event happens.

cv2.namedWindow('image')
cv2.setMouseCallback('image',draw_function)

With these lines, we named our window as ‘image’ and set a callback function which will call the draw_function() whenever a mouse event occurs.

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5. Create the draw_function

It will calculate the rgb values of the pixel which we double click. The function parameters have the event name, (x,y) coordinates of the mouse position, etc. In the function, we check if the event is double-clicked then we calculate and set the r,g,b values along with x,y positions of the mouse.

def draw_function(event, x,y,flags,param):
    if event == cv2.EVENT_LBUTTONDBLCLK:
        global b,g,r,xpos,ypos, clicked
        clicked = True
        xpos = x
        ypos = y
        b,g,r = img[y,x]
        b = int(b)
        g = int(g)
        r = int(r)

6. Calculate distance to get color name

We have the r,g and b values. Now, we need another function which will return us the color name from RGB values. To get the color name, we calculate a distance(d) which tells us how close we are to color and choose the one having minimum distance.

Our distance is calculated by this formula:

d = abs(Red – ithRedColor) + (Green – ithGreenColor) + (Blue – ithBlueColor)

def getColorName(R,G,B):
    minimum = 10000
    for i in range(len(csv)):
        d = abs(R- int(csv.loc[i,"R"])) + abs(G- int(csv.loc[i,"G"]))+ abs(B- int(csv.loc[i,"B"]))
        if(d<=minimum):
            minimum = d
            cname = csv.loc[i,"color_name"]
    return cname

7. Display image on the window

Whenever a double click event occurs, it will update the color name and RGB values on the window.

Using the cv2.imshow() function, we draw the image on the window. When the user double clicks the window, we draw a rectangle and get the color name to draw text on the window using cv2.rectangle and cv2.putText() functions.

while(1):
    cv2.imshow("image",img)
    if (clicked):
        #cv2.rectangle(image, startpoint, endpoint, color, thickness) -1 thickness fills rectangle entirely
        cv2.rectangle(img,(20,20), (750,60), (b,g,r), -1)

        #Creating text string to display ( Color name and RGB values )
        text = getColorName(r,g,b) + ' R='+ str(r) + ' G='+ str(g) + ' B='+ str(b)

        #cv2.putText(img,text,start,font(0-7), fontScale, color, thickness, lineType, (optional bottomLeft bool) )
        cv2.putText(img, text,(50,50),2,0.8,(255,255,255),2,cv2.LINE_AA)
  #For very light colours we will display text in black colour
        if(r+g+b>=600):
            cv2.putText(img, text,(50,50),2,0.8,(0,0,0),2,cv2.LINE_AA)

        clicked=False

    #Break the loop when user hits 'esc' key 
    if cv2.waitKey(20) & 0xFF ==27:
        break

cv2.destroyAllWindows()

8. Run Python File

The beginner Python project is now complete, you can run the Python file from the command prompt. Make sure to give an image path using ‘-i’ argument. If the image is in another directory, then you need to give full path of the image:

python color_detection.py -i <add your image path here>

running python mini project

Screenshots:

import cv2 - python mini project

def getColorName - project in python

while (1) python data science project

Output:

Double click on the window to know the name of the pixel color

red color detection - python mini project

yellow color detection - python project with source code

blue color detection - python mini project

Summary

In this Python project with source code, we learned about colors and how we can extract color RGB values and the color name of a pixel. We learned how to handle events like double-clicking on the window and saw how to read CSV files with pandas and perform operations on data. This is used in numerous image editing and drawing apps.

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Hope you enjoyed building this project and keep visiting for more cool projects.

22 Responses

  1. Laxman says:

    Thank you very much .it is very usefull

  2. HARISH GANGWAL says:

    its giving error.
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “color_detection.py”, line 1, in
    import cv2
    ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘cv2’

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Hi Harish,

      The following error occurs because your Python cannot find the module you are importing.
      To download the OpenCV module, type this in the command line:
      pip install opencv-python

  3. Jagadish says:

    The code is not working it shows error arguments required

    • DataFlair Team says:

      In the second step, we have added an argument so that we can feed any image to the program through the command line. So to run the file, we have to provide -i argument along with the image path.

      Syntax:
      python color_detection.py -i

      Example:
      python color_detection.py -i “colorpic.jpg”

  4. Abusad Siddiqui says:

    Can you send me machine learning project

  5. Sujay says:

    it is because you dont have a opencv installed or it is not detected by IDLE. check some blog on OpenCV installation.

  6. Redhwan says:

    it is very fine.
    how to use like this but choose area instead of point?

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Hi Redhwan,

      To determine the color we only need one point. In an area, there can be more than one color. So you can first get the coordinates of the area and predict color on each pixel with a loop. As a result, you can display only the unique colors.

  7. Aryaman Singh says:

    I am getting no error the image window is opening but on clicking mouse nothing appears, no rectangle containing color information.

  8. Vidyesh Ranade says:

    Hello,

    I get below error. Please help
    C:\Users\vr42797.IND\PycharmProjects\techbeamers\venv\Scripts\python.exe C:/Users/vr42797.IND/PycharmProjects/data_flair/python-project-color-detection/color_detection.py -i C:\Users\vr42797.IND\PycharmProjects\data_flair\python-project-color-detection
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “C:/Users/vr42797.IND/PycharmProjects/data_flair/python-project-color-detection/color_detection.py”, line 50, in
    cv2.imshow(“image”,img)
    cv2.error: OpenCV(4.1.2) C:\projects\opencv-python\opencv\modules\highgui\src\window.cpp:376: error: (-215:Assertion failed) size.width>0 && size.height>0 in function ‘cv::imshow’

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Hi Vidyesh,

      When running the file, you have to provide the full path of the image along with its name. You are only providing the path to your project folder. So you can fix this error by adding the image name.
      For example – python ../project folder/colour_detection.py -i “../project folder/colorpic.jpg”

  9. fery says:

    Sir or Madam, want to ask, in this case what method are you using? Thank you very much

  10. Vidyesh Ranade says:

    DataFlair Team,

    Its working now when path with file name is specified.

    Your code is amazing!!!
    Just 75 lines of well-thought and organized code really does magic.

    best regards,
    Vidyesh

    • DataFlair Team says:

      Hi Vidyesh,

      We are glad you liked our code representation. Do share the Python project on social media with your friends and colleagues.

  11. Sravan says:

    Hello..your project is perfect and working on ubuntu flawlessly but my issue is..The window size of image is so small..is there any way so that i can make that window bigger

  12. prabha says:

    will this code run only on python 3.6.0 version or all the other versions?

  13. prabha says:

    AM GETTING THIS ERROR . PLEASE HELP
    usage: ipykernel_launcher.py [-h] -i IMAGE
    ipykernel_launcher.py: error: the following arguments are required: -i/–image
    An exception has occurred, use %tb to see the full traceback.

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