JavaScript Architecture – Architecture For Different Applications

In this JavaScript Tutorial, we will study JavaScript Architecture that consists of Testing IDEs, discovering communities, exploring deployment procedures, learning what questions to ask and evaluating libraries(MVC, dependency management, utilities). Also, putting all these things together to lead a team and produce an application worthy of enterprise consumption.

JavaScript Architecture

1. JavaScript Application

JavaScript is merely a language. HTML, is, for the most part, a set of dilapidated, relatively primitive components. To reduce boilerplate, abstract browser inconsistencies, and to provide engineers with higher level tools to be more productive, all kinds of libraries have come out of the woodwork.

Because JavaScript and HTML leave out some basic structures and components that are so commonly needed, these libraries often overlap in functionality and features. This is both exciting and frustrating because you have so many options to choose from.

For an architect, specifically in an enterprise setting, these decisions will be very important and can ultimately determine the fate of your product. There comes a time in every developer’s life where we get caught up in rolling our own libraries. Maybe we think our work is superior, maybe we don’t do enough research on what’s already available. There is a small thing that isn’t quite right in a library so we rewrite it from search.

A generic JavaScript application involves:

i. Front End

HTML, CSS, JavaScript a couple of frameworks that can be used on the front end are:

  • Bootstrap: It is the most popular CSS framework, all over the world.
  • Bulma: A modern CSS framework based on Flexbox.
  • Tailwind: A utility first CSS framework for fast User Interface development.

A couple of JavaScript Framework that can be used on the front end are:

  • React
  • Vue
  • Angular
  • Preact
  • Polymer
  • Svelte
  • Mithril

ii. Back End

JavaScript running on the node.js server. Some frameworks that can be used in Back end are:

  • Express: Fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework for Node.js.
  • Hapi: A Rich framework for building applications and services.
  • Koa: It is another generation web framework for Node. Js

Examples for the databases are:

The advantages of JavaScript power to build robust web scale or enterprise applications that are easy to extend and maintain. JavaScript is the most essential web programming language.

2. JavaScript Application Architecture

Web Applications have different requirements from websites. For example – while page reloads may be acceptable for a blog, that is certainly not a case for an application like Google Docs. Your application should behave as closely as possible to desktop one. Otherwise, usability will compromise.

The old style of web applications was usually done by sending multiple pages from a web server, and when a lot of dynamics was needed, content was loaded via Ajax by replacing chunks of HTML according to the user actions. Although it was a big step forward to a more dynamic web, it certainly had its complications.

Typically JavaScript applications are built from bottom up. First, we have some kind of screen mockups or prototypes; next, those screens are hooked up with code which takes care of screen manipulation, data creations, updates, deletions and so on. In short, user interface stands in the center of development at all times.

The diagram is showing the final JavaScript architecture of most of the JavaScript built to data. For simple applications, this architecture is perfectly acceptable. Complex applications though cannot benefit from such JavaScript architecture, in long term. With the complexity growing continuously, this kind of simplistic JavaScript architecture cannot handle the demands that mature application faces, such as separation of concerns, layering solid code, unit testability, maintainability, extensibility and so on. If these challenges are not identified and solved at the early stages of development, with the complexities growing and deadlines shrinking. Then, the task of adding more capabilities to the application may become too costly in terms of resources, schedule, and budget. JavaScript architecture in long terms will pay back by keeping your work feasible and fun.

JavaScript Application Architecture

3. Framework Based JavaScript Architecture

Since the world got to know about the demand for more mature JavaScript applications and architectures, many frameworks starting evolving to solve this problem. They help in many ways provide simplistic or readable HTML markups by parsing them for you, render and transform the HTML mark up in many ways with simple code blocks; integrate seamlessly with server-side handlers.

The diagram shows where all this advancement is at this point. While UI screen is still the focus of the final delivery, code behind part has now become more advanced. They not only separate behavior concerns. But, they also provide many values, such as encapsulation of business logic away from UI screens, unit testable, maintainability. Many application developers and architects have taken frameworks that recommend such architectures and have done a great job implementing in their software.

Framework Based JavaScript Architecture

4. Advanced JavaScript Architecture

This architecture provides all the benefits of fully fledged applications such as:

  • Layers separate, so it is possible to focus on business concerns in separation from the UI concerns.
  • Business logic is completely unit testable and this can be stable and reliable as we need.
  • Business logic extends with new capabilities without modifying the present UI screens.
  • UI layer consists of both code behind and UI screens, so none of the existing benefits lost when comparing to the typical framework JavaScript architectures.
  • Finally, the UI layer’s controller and view model is not the center of the domain logic anymore, instead of code behind just maps domain logic into UI screens.

Advanced JavaScript Architecture

5. Single Page Applications [SPAs]

The most common high-level JavaScript architecture for web applications is SPAs, which stands for Single Page Applications. SPAs are big blobs of JavaScript that contain everything which the application needs to work properly. Reloading is not necessary as the UI renders completely on the client side. Only the data inside the application changes, which remote APIs handle through Ajax or any other asynchronous means of communication.

One downside of this approach is that the applications take longer to load for the first time. Once it loads, the transition between the views(pages) is generally a lot quicker, since its only the pure data that sends between client and server.

Explore the different features of JavaScript.

6. Universal / Isomorphic Applications

SPAs give a great user experience, depending on the user needs, they might not be perfect solutions, especially if you need faster initial response time or optimal indexing through search engines. There is a fairly recent approach in solving these problems called Isomorphic (or Universal) JavaScript applications. In this type of JavaScript architecture, most of the codes execute both on client and server. You can choose what you want to do to render on the server for a faster initial page load, and after that, the client takes over the rendering while the user is interacting with the app. Because the page initially renders on servers, search engines can index them properly.

7. Deployment of JavaScript Application

In modern JavaScript applications, the code you enter is not the same code as you deploy for production: you just deploy the output of the build process. The workflow to accomplish this can vary depending on the size of your projects, the number of developers working on it and the tools libraries that you are using.

For example – If you are working alone on a simple project, each time you are ready for the build process and upload the resulting files to the web servers. Make sure that you only need to upload resulting files from the build process (transpilation, module bundling, minification) which can be just one .js file containing your entire applications and dependencies.

You should also learn JavaScript Syntax.

8. Summary

In this article, we have seen what and all the applications of JavaScript and how it is evolving these days. The transitions from simple webpages to modern JavaScript applications can seem daunting if you have been away from web development these days. Just to recap, for simplest applications like prototypes or very small projects, you should still go with typical JavaScript architectures, without involving any special frameworks.

Furthermore, any comments or feedbacks from your side are welcomed.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.