Top SQL Interview Questions and Answers – Crack Your Next Interview

1. SQL Related Interview Questions

Today, we are not going to discuss any SQL Concept. Instead, we will prepare you for your next SQL Interview. So, here we are giving you top SQL Interview Questions with answers. We have isolated this SQL Questions asked in the interview on the basis of  –

  • Tough SQL Interview Questions
  • Basic SQL Interview Questions
  • Advanced SQL Interview Questions
  • SQL Practical Interview Questions

All these SQL Interview Questions are designed by SQL experts. Go through all the categories of SQL questions asked in the interview, and leave a comment if you face any query.

Top SQL Interview Questions and Answers

Top SQL Interview Questions and Answers

So, before moving to SQL related Interview Questions, we recommend you take a tour of SQL Tutorial once.

2. Basic SQL Interview Questions With Answers

Following are the basic SQL Interview Questions. Let’s see in detail these SQL queries asked in the interview for experienced –

Q.1  What is SQL?

Ans. SQL stands for Structured Query Language which is a database managing tool used to access and also create a database which is used to support software application.

Q.2 What are the tables in SQL?

Ans. A table in SQL is the same as any other table thus holding a collection of tables and data in a single view.
Let’s learn SQL more about SQL Table

Q.3 What are different types of Statements that are supported by SQL?

Ans. There are 3 kinds of SQL statements-

SQL Interview QUestions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Types of Statements

a. DDL (Data Definition Language): It is used to characterize the database structure, for example, tables. It incorporates three statements, for example, Create, Alter, and Drop.
A part of the DDL Commands are recorded beneath –

  • Create: It is used for making the table.
CREATE TABLE table_name
column_name1 data_type(size),
column_name2 data_type(size),
column_name3 data_type(size),
  • Alter: The ALTER table is used for changing the current table in the database.
ALTER TABLE table_name
Include column_name datatype
Or then again
Adjust TABLE table_name
DROP COLUMN column_name

b. DML (Data Manipulation Language): These statements are used to control the data in tables. Usually used DML statements are Insert, Update, and Delete.
c. DCL (Data Control Language): These statements are used to set benefits, for example, Grant and Revoke database get to authorization to the particular user.

Q.4 How would we use DISTINCT Statement? What is its use?

Ans. The particular statement is used with the SELECT statement. In the event that the tables contain duplicate values then DISTINCT is used to choose diverse values among duplicate tables.
You must look at Distinct Keyword in SQL
The syntax for Distinct Statement:

SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)
FROM table_name;

Q.5 Why do we use SQL limitations? Which constraints can we use while making a database in SQL?

Ans. SQL Constraints are used to set the principles for all tables in the table. On the off chance that any imperatives get abused then it can prematurely end the activity that caused it.
Constraints are characterized while making the database itself with CREATE TABLE explanation or even after the table is made once with ALTER TABLE statement.
There are 5 noteworthy constraints we use as a part of SQL, for example,

  • NOT NULL: That demonstrates that the section must have some value and we can’t leave it invalid
  • Interesting: We use this constraint to guarantee that each line and section has one of a kind value and we make sure we don’t rehash any values in some other line or segment
  • Essential KEY: We use this constraint as a part of the relationship with NOT NULL and UNIQUE imperatives, for example, on one or the mix of in excess of one segments to distinguish the specific record with a one of a kind character.
  • Remote KEY: Generally, we use it to guarantee the referential uprightness of data in the table and furthermore coordinates the incentive in one table with another utilizing Primary Key
  • CHECK: We use it to guarantee whether the incentive in sections satisfies the predetermined condition.

Let’s learn more about Check and Default Constraint in SQL

Q.6 What do you mean by Subquery?

Ans. Question inside another inquiry is called as Subquery. A subquery or inward query which returns yield that we will use another query.

Q.7 What is the use of NVL work?

Ans. We use NVL work to change over the null a value to its real value.

Q.8 What are number line correlation administrators will use while working with a subquery?

Ans. There are 3-row comparison operators which we use in subqueries, for example, IN, ANY what not.

3. Advanced SQL Interview Questions

Following are Advanced SQL Interview Questions which will help SQL experienced to crack the SQL interview in one go. So, let’s discuss these SQL queries asked in interview for experienced –

Q.9 What are transactions and its controls?

Ans. SQL Transaction can be characterized as the grouping assignment that is performed on databases in an intelligent way to increase certain outcomes. Activities performed like creating, refreshing, erasing tables in the database originates from transactions.
In a straightforward word, we can state that a transaction implies a gathering of SQL inquiries executed on database tables.
There are 4 transactions controls, for example,

  • COMIT: We use this to spare all progressions made through the transactions
  • ROLLBACK: We use it to move back the transactions, for example, all progressions made by the transactions will return and database stays as previously
  • SET TRANSACTION: Set the name of transactions
  • SAVEPOINT: We use it to set the point from where the transactions will move back

Q.10 What are the properties of the transactions?

Ans. Properties of transactions are known as ACID properties, for example,

  • Atomicity: Ensures the fulfillment of all transactions performed. It will check to ensure each transaction finishes effectively. If it doesn’t, and transactions prematurely end at the disappointment point, this moves the past transactions to their underlying state.
  • Consistency: This ensures fruitful transactions for all progressions.
  • Isolation: This ensures freedom for all transactions, and also makes sure to make changes to a transaction in a way that doesn’t affect another.
  • Durability: Ensures that the changes made in the database with submitted transactions endure as it is even after framework disappointment.

Do you know about SQL RDBMS Concept

Q.11 What number Aggregate Functions are accessible there in SQL?

Ans. SQL Aggregate Functions figures values from various segments in a table and returns a single value.
There are 7 total functions we use in SQL

  • AVG(): Returns the normal incentive from indicated segments.
  • Check(): Returns a number of table lines.
  • MAX(): Returns biggest incentive among the tables.
  • MIN(): Returns littlest incentive among the tables.
  • Total(): Returns the total of determined segment values.
  • FIRST(): Returns the main value.
  • LAST(): Returns Last value.

Q.12 What are Scalar Functions in SQL?

Ans. Scalar Functions are used to restore a single value in view of the info values. Scalar Functions are as per the following

  • UCASE(): Converts the predefined field in capitalized.
  • LCASE(): Converts the predefined field in bring down case.
  • MID(): Extracts and returns character from content field.
  • Organization(): Specifies the show arrange.
  • LEN(): Specifies the length of the content field.
  • ROUND(): Rounds up the decimal field an incentive to a number.

Q.13 What are triggers?

Ans. Triggers in SQL has somewhat put away techniques used to make a reaction to a particular activity performed on the table, for example, Insert, Update or Delete. Activity and Event are two principal parts of SQL triggers when we play certain activities out the occasion happens in light of that activity.
The syntax of SQL Triggers:

CREATE TRIGGER name {BEFORE|AFTER} (occasion [OR..]}
ON table_name [FOR [EACH] {ROW|STATEMENT}]
EXECUTE TECHNIQUE functionname {arguments}

Q.14 What is View in SQL?

Ans. We can characterize View as a virtual table that contains lines and segments with fields from at least one table.
Have a look at SQL Data Types
The syntax of SQL View:

CREATE VIEW view_name AS
SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition

4. Tough SQL Interview Questions

Following are some tough SQL Interview Questions, read them carefully. So, let’s discuss SQL Important Interview Questions in detail –

Q.15 How we can refresh the view?

Ans. SQL CREATE and REPLACE can be used for refreshing the view.
The syntax for SQL Create and Refresh:

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW view_name AS
SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition

Q.16 Explain the working of SQL Privileges?

Ans. SQL GRANT and REVOKE charges are used to execute benefits in SQL various user conditions. The chairman of the database can give or repudiate benefits to or from users of database object like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, ALL and so on.
Do you know about SQL Alter Command
GRANT Command: This summons is used to give database access to user separated from a chairman.
The syntax of SQL Grant Command:

GRANT privilege_name
ON object_name
TO {user_name|PUBLIC|role_name}
[WITH GRANT OPTION];

REVOKE Command: We use this charge to give database deny or evacuate access to database objects.
The syntax of SQL Revoke Command:

REVOKE privilege_name
ON object_name
FROM {user_name|PUBLIC|role_name};

Q.17 What number sorts of Privileges are accessible in SQL?

Ans. There are two types –

System Privilege: System benefits manage an object of a specific sort and indicates the privilege to perform at least one activities on it which incorporate Admin enables a user to perform regulatory assignments, ALTER ANY INDEX, ALTER ANY CACHE GROUP CREATE/ALTER/DELETE TABLE, CREATE/ALTER/DELETE VIEW and so forth.
Object Privilege: This permits to perform activities on an object or question of another user(s) viz. table, see, files and so on. A portion of the object benefits are EXECUTE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, FLUSH, LOAD, INDEX, REFERENCES and so forth.

Q.18 What is SQL Injection?

Ans. SQL Injection is a kind of database attack technique where pernicious SQL statements are embedded into a section field of the database with the end goal that once it is executed the database is opened for an attacker. We generally use this technique for attacking Data-Driven Applications to have an entrance to delicate information and perform administrative undertakings on databases.

For Example:

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Q.19 What is SQL Sandbox in SQL Server?

Ans. SQL Sandbox is the protected place in SQL Server Environment where untrusted contents are executed. There are 3 sorts of SQL Sandbox, for example:

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SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Sandbox

Safe Access Sandbox: Here a user can perform SQL tasks, for example, making put away systems, triggers and so forth yet can’t approach the memory and can’t make records.
External Access Sandbox: User can approach records without having a privilege to control the memory distribution.
Unsafe Access Sandbox: This contains untrusted codes where a user can approach memory.

Q.20 What is the contrast between SQL and PL/SQL?

Ans. SQL is an organized inquiry dialect to make and access databases through PL/SQL accompanies procedural ideas of programming dialects.

Have a look at SQL Expressions

Q.21 What is the contrast between SQL and MySQL?

Ans. SQL is an organized query language that is used for controlling and getting to the social database, then again, MySQL itself is a social database that utilizations SQL as the standard database language.

5. SQL Practical Interview Questions

Following are best practical SQL Interview Questions. So, let’s discuss SQL related interview questions which interviewers ask on a practical basis:

Q.22 What are distinctive JOINS find as a part of SQL?

Ans. SQL Joins

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Joins

There are 4 noteworthy kinds of SQL Joins made to use while dealing with various tables in SQL databases

  • Inner JOIN: We also call it a SIMPLE JOIN; it restores all lines from both tables when no less than one section gets coordinate.

The syntax for distinctive joins –

Unsafe Access SandboxSELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
INNER JOIN table_name2
ON column_name1=column_name2;

Example of distinctive joins –
In this example, we have a table Employee with the accompanying data

SQL Interview Questions

Top SQL Interview Questions – Inner Join

Representative tableUnsafe Access Sandbox
The second Table is joining

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Inner Join

joining
Enter the accompanying SQL statement

SELECT Employee.Emp_id, Joining.Joining_Date
 FROM Employee
 INNER JOIN Joining
 ON Employee.Emp_id = Joining.Emp_id
 ORDER BY Employee.Emp_id;

There will be 4 tables selected. These are the outcomes that you should see

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Inner Join

Worker and requests tables where there is a coordinating customer_id value in both the Employee and requests tables.
Explore best SQL Books

  • LEFT JOIN (LEFT OUTER JOIN): This join restores all lines from a LEFT table and it’s coordinated

columns from a RIGHT table.
The syntax of Left Join:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
LEFT JOIN table_name2
ON column_name1=column_name2;

Example for Left Join
In this example, we have a table Employee with the accompanying data:

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Left Join

The second Table is Joining

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Left Join

SELECT Employee.Emp_id, Joining.Joining_Date
FROM Employee
LEFT OUTER JOIN Joining
ON Employee.Emp_id = Joining.Emp_id
ORDER BY Employee.Emp_id;

There will be 4 tables chose. These are the outcomes that you should see:

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Interview Questions – SQL Joins

  • RIGHT JOIN (RIGHT OUTER JOIN): This joins restores all columns from the RIGHT table and its coordinated lines from a LEFT table.

The syntax of Right Join:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
RIGHT JOIN table_name2
ON column_name1=column_name2;

Example of Right Join
In this example, we have a table Employee with the accompanying data
Syntax:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
RIGHT JOIN table_name2
ON column_name1=column_name2;

There will be 4 tables chose. These are the outcomes that you should see

  • FULL JOIN (FULL OUTER JOIN): This join will restore all when it finds a match either in the RIGHT table or on the LEFT table.

The syntax of Full SQL Join-

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
FULL OUTER JOIN table_name2
ON column_name1=column_name2;

The example of SQL Full Join –
In this case, we have a table Employee with the accompanying data:
Worker table

SQL Interview Questions

Example of SQL Full Joins

Second Table is joining

SQL Interview QUestions

SQL Interview Questions – Joins in SQL

The syntax of SQL Outer Join –

SELECT Employee.Emp_id, Joining.Joining_Date
FROM Employee
LEFT OUTER JOIN Joining
ON Employee.Emp_id = Joining.Emp_id
ORDER BY Employee.Emp_id;

There will be 8 tables chose. These are the outcomes that you should see
The result of FULL OUTER JOIN

SQL Interview Questions

SQL Fuller Joins

Q.23 What is the Cartesian product of table?

Ans. The output of a Cross Join is a Cartesian Product. It returns lines combining each column from the primary table with each line of the second table. For Example, in the event that we join two tables having 15 and 20 products the Cartesian result of two tables will be 15×20=300 Rows.

Q.24 What are diverse Clauses that form a part of SQL?

Ans. Clauses used as a part of SQL:

SQL Interview Questions

Top SQL Interview Questions – SQL Clauses

  • WHERE Clause: The clause serves to help characterize the condition, extract, and display tables that satisfy the given condition.

Have a look at SQL Like Clause
The syntax of Where Clause:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition;
  • Having BY Clause: We use this with SELECT explanation to mass the consequence of the executed inquiry utilizing the value that indicate in it. It coordinates the incentive with the section name in tables and gatherings the final product appropriately.

The syntax of Having BY Clause:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
Gathering BY column_name;
  • HAVING clause: We use this provision as a component of the relationship with the GROUP BY clause. It connects to each gathering of result or the whole outcome as a single gathering; it is also comparative to the WHERE provision. However, what separates it is that we can’t use it without the GROUP BY statement.

The syntax oh Having Clause :

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
Gathering BY column_name
HAVING condition;
  • Order by clause: This provision is to characterize the request of the inquiry yield either in climbing (ASC) or in dropping (DESC) arrange. The default is Rising (ASC)

The syntax structure of Order by clause:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition
Request BY column_name ASC|DESC;
  • Utilizing condition: We use the USING provision when working with SQL joins. It uses to check balance in light of sections when tables get to join. We can use rather ON statement in Joins.

Learn about SQL Union Clause
Syntax structure of utilizing condition:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
JOIN table_name
Utilizing (column_name);

Q.25 Explain contrast amongst grouped and non-bunched records?

Ans. a. One table can have just a single grouped list yet various non-clustered records.
b. We can pursue Grouped lists quickly as opposed to non-bunched lists.
c. Grouped lists store information physically in the table or see and non-bunched lists don’t store data in the table as it has isolate structure from information push.
So, this was all in SQL Interview Questions. Hope you like our explanation.

6. Conclusion

In this article frequently asked SQL Interview Questions, we studied top and basic SQL Interview Questions. We have discussed SQL Interview Questions for experienced and freshers both. Hope our this article helps you. Now, you are ready to check the most asked Interview Questions for SQL. If you want to add more questions related to SQL, you can comment below. 

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