Indus Valley Civilization – Harappa Civilization

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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization in the northwestern districts of South Asia. It existed from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. Its development started from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. This is one of the four known civilizations of the world.

This civilization stretched from upper east Afghanistan, through a lot of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India. This civilization existed on the basin of the Indus River which flowed through Pakistan and entered northwest India.

This is the seed for the present civilization in India. The Indus River was monsoon-fed and thus flowed in the perennial system. This article comprises the following topics which will help us get a clear insight into the Indus Valley Civilization.

  • Origin
  • Extent of the civilization
  • Society
  • Economy
  • Religion
  • Culture and adaptation of other cultures
  • Decline of the civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

Origin of Indus Valley Civilization

Let us firstly see the origin of Indus Valley Civilization.

The Indus Valley Civilization is named after the Indus river system in whose alluvial fields the early sites of the civilization were distinguished and excavated. Following a custom in prehistoric studies, the civilization is called as Harappan named after Harappa.

This is the principal site to be unearthed during the 1920s. Two urban communities, specifically, have been uncovered at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus, and at Harappa, further upstream.

The proof proposes they had an exceptionally evolved city life; numerous houses had wells and restrooms just as a detailed underground waste framework.

The social states of the residents were similar to those in Sumeria and better than the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These urban communities show a very much arranged urbanization framework.

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The principal present-day records of the remnants of the Indus civilization are those of Charles Masson, a deserter from the East India Company’s army.

In 1829, Masson went through the august territory of Punjab, gathering valuable knowledge for the Company as an end-result of a guarantee of clemency. A part of this game plan was to hand over to the Company any chronicled antiques procured during his movements.

Masson’s major archeological disclosure in Punjab was Harappa, a city of the Indus civilization in the valley of Indus’ tributary, the Ravi. Masson made notes and representations of Harappa’s rich authentic antiques, many lying half-covered.

In 1842, Masson incorporated his perceptions of Harappa in the book,’Narrative of Various Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab’.

Extent of the Civilization

The Indus civilization was generally contemporary with the other civilizations of the antiquated world: Egypt along the Nile, Mesopotamia in the grounds watered by the Euphrates and the Tigris, and China in the seepage bowl of the Yellow River and the Yangtze.

When its development stage, the civilization had spread over a territory bigger than the others, which incorporated a center of 1,500 kilometers up the alluvial plain of the Indus and its tributaries.

Likewise, there was an area with different greenery, fauna, and living spaces, which had been formed socially and economically by the Indus. Around 6500 BCE, agriculture rose in Balochistan, on the edges of the Indus alluvium.

The huge urban focuses of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa likely developed to contain somewhere in the range of 30,000 and 60,000 people. During the human advancement’s brilliance, the number of inhabitants in the subcontinent developed to between 4–6 million individuals.

The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched from Pakistan’s Balochistan in the west to India’s western Uttar Pradesh in the east, from northeastern Afghanistan in the north to India’s Gujarat state in the south.

However, the biggest number of locales are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan areas in Pakistan.

Coastal settlements stretched out from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. The southernmost site of the Indus valley civilization is Daimabad in Maharashtra.


A complex and mechanically progressed urban culture is clear in the Indus Valley Civilization, making them the primary urban focus in the area. The nature of metropolitan towns shows their knowledge of urban planning and proficient civil governments which set a high need for cleanliness.

We can also see their openness to the methods for strict custom. Inside the city, singular homes or gatherings of homes acquired water from wells. We can see a room that seems to have been saved for washing.

We can also see wastewater which was coordinated to secure channels. Houses opened uniquely to internal yards and littler paths. The propeller design of the Harappans is appeared by their noteworthy dockyards, storage facilities, distribution centers, block stages, and defensive dividers.

The monstrous dividers of Indus urban communities in all likelihood shielded the Harappans from floods and may have discouraged military clashes.


The Indus Valley economy was vigorously founded on trade; it was one of the most significant qualities of this progress.

Pretty much every part of their general public, from the urban areas they worked to the innovation they created, was to guarantee that they could make high-caliber and gainful exchange items for the civic establishments.

Dealers and skilled workers utilized the exchange courses to carry crude materials into the towns and urban communities. This is the place they were transformed into ornaments, stoneware, and metal products.

Archeologists have discovered loads and gauges which propose that there were exchange focuses inside the urban communities. Cotton was one of the most significant products of the Indus Valley trading system.

Their wealth depended on a resource economy of wheat and barley. The Indus Valley Civilization had what was called soapstone seals and this is the thing that they may have utilized for cash later on in human advancement.


The Indus Valley religion is polytheistic and comprises Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. There are numerous seals to help the proof of the Indus Valley Gods. A few seals show creatures that take after the two divine beings, Shiva and Rudra.

Different seals delineate a tree which the Indus Valley accepted to be the tree of life. The tree was protected by a soul to get the insidious powers far from the tree. The gatekeeper was portrayed by numerous creatures, for example, bull, snake, goat, or some other legendary animal or creature.

The malevolent power is spoken to by a tiger. One seal shows a figure sitting in a place that might be as a yoga position and is believed to be an early portrayal of a Hindu God.

The Indus individuals venerated a Father God who may have been the progenitor of the race. Idols discovered drove the researchers to accept that the Indus individuals revered a Mother Goddess representing richness.

They venerated images which were round or punctured stones, a practice that was performed before the worship of Shiva and Parvati as Sivalinga. They believed in mythical customs, charms and special necklaces, and furthermore evil presences and spirits.

Culture and their Adaptation to other Cultures

The Indus valley was likewise one of the primary civilizations to create water systems and cultivating frameworks, just as creating cultivating to deliver mass materials. The Indus valley additionally built up a type of assessment, which included the giving of grain as a base of the economy .

This was viewed as predominant and extremely unique of the time. The language they spoke, the art and craft they created, the food they harvested, the ritual customs that women of those periods followed, and their trading system clearly shows how cultured and civilized those people were.

Despite the fact that the religion of the Indus valley and their social practices were interesting to the nations around them, the individuals of the Indus valley had a few impacts from their neighbors India and specifically Persia.

Numerous societies were created because of contact with different civilizations. For example, Sumer and Egypt were affluent and dynamic for the time the Indus valley prospered without anyone else.

Albeit strict practices were of Hindu premise, the Indus valley included and grew new customs and components of their religion making something especially customary their own.

The Decline of the Civilization

By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the start of their decline. Writing began to vanish. Normalized loads and measures utilized for exchange and tax collection purposes dropped out of utilization.

The association with the Near East has interfered, and a few urban communities surrendered. The explanations behind this decrease are not so clear. Yet it is accepted that the evaporating of the Saraswati River, a procedure which had started around 1900 BCE.

This was the fundamental driver. Different specialists talk about an extraordinary flood in the region.

Around 1500 BCE, a huge gathering of traveling cattle herders, the Aryans, moved into the district from focal Asia. The Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and interacted with the Indus Valley Civilization.

This was a huge movement and used to be viewed as an attack, which was believed to be the purpose behind the breakdown of the Indus Valley Civilization. However, this theory isn’t consistently acknowledged today.

Consequently, the Indus Valley Civilization reached a conclusion. Through the span of a few centuries, the Aryans steadily settled down and took up farming. The language brought by the Aryans picked up matchless quality over the nearby dialects.

The starting point of the most generally communicated in dialects today in south Asia returns to the Aryans. They brought the Indo-European dialects into the Indian subcontinent.

Different highlights of present-day Indian culture, for example, strict practices and station division, can likewise be followed back to the hours of the Aryan relocations. Numerous pre-Aryan traditions despite everything get by in India today.

Proof supporting this case incorporates the following; the congruity of pre-Aryan customs; rehearses by numerous divisions of Indian culture.

Furthermore the likelihood that some significant divine forces of the Hindu pantheon really began during the hour of the Indus Valley Civilization. These were kept “alive” by the first occupants as the centuries progressed.


Finally, we saw about Indus Valley Civilization. Maybe the most significant inheritance of the Indus development was its peacefulness.

In astounding and emotional complexity to other old human advancements, the archeological record of the Indus progress gives almost no valid proof of armed forces, lords, slaves, social clash, political persecution, net social imbalances, detainment facilities, and different tribulations.

Did the Indus development contribute somehow or another to the idea of ahimsa (peacefulness), one of the most significant of every single Hindu conviction? Maybe we will never know.

In any case, we ought to recollect the expressions of Mahatma Gandhi: “I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and non-violence are as old as the hills.”

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