15th and 16th Century – The Bhakti Movement

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By 1413, the Tughlaq dynasty completely declined and the neighboring governor captured Delhi and this led to the start of the Sayyid Dynasty. In 1398, Timur attacked India and ransacked Indian riches.

While returning back, he named Khizr Khan as the legislative head of Delhi. Khizr Khan had taken Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi and established the Sayyid administration in 1414. The Sayyid line governed Delhi until 1451.

We are going to see what happened after the tughlaq dynasty in Detail under the following headings:

  • Vijayanagara Empire
  • The Lodis
  • Babur
  • Humayun
  • The Sur Empire
  • The Portuguese
  • Sikhism
  • Kabir
  • Bhakti Movement
  • Literature

The Bhakti Movement

Vijayanagara Empire

  • Before the finish of the Sultanate Period, Multan and Bengal were the main domains to split away from Delhi and announced freedom and numerous different regions in the Deccan district rose to control out of which one was the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • Harihara and Bukka are the founders of the Vijayanagar City in 1336 A.D. on the southern banks of Tungabhadra.
  • They made Hampi the capital city.
  • They served under Veera Ballala III, the Hoysala King.
  • Vijayanagar Empire was managed by four significant lines and they are:
  1. Sangama
  2. Saluva
  3. Tuluva
  4. Aravidu

Harihara I

  • In 1336 A.D. Harihara I turned into the leader of Sangama Dynasty
  • He annexed Mysore and Madurai.
  • In 1356 A.D. Bukka-I succeeded him

Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529 A.D.)

  • Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva tradition was the most renowned ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire
  • As per Domingo Pães a Portuguese explorer “Krishnadeva Raya was the most dreaded and ideal ruler there might be”.

Krishnadeva Raya’s Conquests

  • He vanquished Sivasamudram in 1510A.D and Raichur in 1512A.D.
  • In 1523 A.D. he caught Orissa and Warangal.
  • His realm reached out from the River Krishna in the north to River Cauvery in the south; the Arabian Sea in the west to Bay of Bengal in the east.

His Contributions

  • He was a capable head.
  • He constructed many tanks and waterways for the water system.
  • Also developed naval power understanding the vital role of overseas trade.
  • He kept up cordial relationships with the Portuguese and Arab merchants.
  • He expanded the income of his administration.
  • Also belittled craftsmanship and design.
  • It was during this period the Vijayanagar Empire arrived at its peak of magnificence.
  • Krishnadeva Raya was an excellent scholar.
  • Ashtadiggajas: A gathering of eight scholars enhanced his court and they were:

1. Allasani Peddanna – the creator of Manucharitra, he was otherwise called Andhra Kavitapitamaha
2. Nandi Thimmana – the creator of Parijathapaharanam
3. Madayyagari Mallana
4. Dhurjati
5. Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra Kavi
6. Pingali Surana
7. Ramaraja Bhushana
8. Tenali Ramakrishna

Battle of Talikota (1565 A.D.)

  • The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were powerless
  • The joined powers of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda, and Bidar proclaimed war on Vijayanagar during the standard of Ramaraya
  • Ramaraya was vanquished. He and his kin were executed.
  • Vijayanagar was ravaged and demolished.
  • This denoted the finish of the Vijayanagara Empire.

The Lodis

Bahlul Lodi (1451 – 1489 A.D.)

  • Bahlul Lodi was the founder of the Lodi Dynasty.
  • The Sultanate Period ended with the Lodi Dynasty.
  • He was a wise legislator who knew the limits.
  • He took different measures to satisfy his nobles.
  • Gwalior, Samthal, Sakit, Mewat was vanquished by Bahlul Lodi.
  • He died in 1489 A.D.
  • Bahlul Lodi never sat on the throne rather he selected to sit on the floor covering with his aristocrats.

Sikandar Shahi (1489-1517 A.D.)

  • Sikandar Shahi was the son of Bahlul Lodi.
  • He was sworn the title Sikandar Shah and climbed the throne.
  • He set up an efficient covert operative framework.
  • Created horticulture and industry.
  • He put serious limitations on the Hindus.
  • Sikandar Shah appreciated “Shehnai” Music.
  • Work on music named “Lahjati-Sikandar Shahi” was made during his rule.

End of Lodi Dynasty (1517-1526 A.D.)

  • Sikandar Lodi was preceded by Ibrahim Lodi.
  • Ibrahim Lodi was obstinate and narrow-minded which were bad characteristics in a ruler.
  • Aristocrats were executed barbarously and numerous aristocrats were mortified by Ibrahim Lodi.
  • He also treated his son Dilwar Khan Lodi cruelly.
  • The invasion of India was done by Kabul ruler, Babur, at the behest of Daulat Khan, a very powerful noble from Punjab.
  • In the 1st battle of Panipat in the year 1526 A.D, Ibrahim Lodi faced defeat at the hands of Babur.
  • Thus, the Lodi Dynasty came to an end.

Babur

  • Babur is the founder of the Mughal Empire in India.
  • Mughals had a place with a part of the Turks called Chagatai, which is named after the second child of Genghis Khan, the well known Mongol Leader.
  • The Foundation of the Mughal Empire in India was laid by Babur, who was a Chagatai Turk.
  • He was a relative of Timur (on his dad’s side) and Genghis Khan (on his Mother’s side).
  • His birth name was Zahiruddin Muhammad.
  • In 1494 at 11 years old, Babur turned into the leader of Farghana (at present in Chinese Turkistan) succeeding Umar Shaikh Mirza, his dad.
  • Daulat Khan, the most impressive and respectable ruler of Punjab, who was disappointed with Ibrahim Lodhi, welcomed Babur to attack India.
  • He attempted four campaigns to India so as to overcome it between the years 1519 and 1523.

Babur’s Military Conquests

  • In 1504, Babur occupied Kabul.
  • Then in 1524, Babur occupied Lahore yet needed to withdraw to Kabul after Daulat Khan betrayed him.
  • In November 1525, Babur assaulted and involved Punjab again.
  • On 21st April 1526, Babur crushed Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat and immediately involved Delhi.
  • Despite immense and prevalent troop Ibrahim Lodi lost in the fight because of Babur’s methodology and strategic planning.
  • The First Battle of Panipat denoted the establishment of Mughal territory in India.
  • Babur vanquished Delhi and sent his child Humayun to hold onto Agra.
  • Babur named himself as “Emperor of Hindustan”.
  • He composed his journals, Tuzuk-I-Baburiin in Turki language.

Rana Sangha and Babur

  • Rana Sangha of Mewar was an extraordinary Rajput warrior.
  • He gave the hardest protection from Babur’s development plans.
  • On March 16, 1527, Rana Sangha, alongside leaders of Marwar, Amber, Gwalior, Ajmer and Chanderi, and Sultan Mahmud Lodi (whom Rana Sangha had recognized as the leader of Delhi) met Babur in a conclusive challenge at Kanhwa, a town close to Agra.The point was to forestall the inconvenience of another unfamiliar constraint on Babur prevailing over them by utilizing comparative strategies as in the Battle of Panipat. At that point, he assumed the title of “Ghazi”.
  • In the year 1528, Chanderi was caught by Babur from Rajput king Medini Rai.
  • On May 6, 1529, Babur met the partnered Afghans of Bihar and Bengal on the banks of Gogra, close Patna and crushed them. With this fight, Babur annexed a significant segment of northern India.
  • On December 26, 1530, Babur passed on at Agra at 40. His body was first laid at Arambagh in Agra anyway was later taken to Kabul, where it was covered.

Humayun

  • Humayun was the eldest child of Babur.
  • He lacked wisdom, discretion, and strong determination and diligence . Thus, as a king, he was a failure.
  • Humayun signifies “fortune” yet he remained the most lamentable leader of the Mughal Empire.
  • A half-year after his progression, Humayun assaulted the stronghold of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand, increased a definitive triumph over Afghans at Douhua, and drove out Sultan Mahmood Lodhi from Jaunpur, and even vanquished Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. His triumphs, be that as it may, were brief because of the shortcoming of his character.
  • Humayun had three siblings, Kamran, Askari and Hindal.
  • Humayun partitioned the domain among his siblings yet this ended up being a great blunder on his part.
  • Kamran was given Kabul and Kandahar.
  • Sambhal and Alwar were given to Askari and Hindal separately.
  • Humayun captured Gujarat from Bahadur Shah and named Askari as its governor.
  • But, soon Bahadur Shah recouped Gujarat from Askari who fled from that point.
  • In the east, Sher Khan turned out to be ground-breaking. Humayun walked against him and in the Battle of Chausa, held in 1539, Sher Khan destroyed the Mughal army and Humayun escaped from there.
  • Humayun reached Agra to negotiate with his brothers.
  • In 1540, in the Battle of Bilgram or Ganges otherwise called Battle of Kanauj, Humayun had to battle with Sher Khan alone and subsequent to losing his realm, Humayun went to exile for the following fifteen years.
  • In 1952, during his wanderings in deserts of Sindh, Humayun wedded Hamida Banu Begum, the little girl of Sheik Ali Amber Jaini, who had been a preceptor of Humayun’s sibling Hindal.
  • On November 23, 1542, Humayun was blessed with Akbar.
  • Amarkot’s Hindu chief RanaPrasad promised Humayun to help him to conquer Thatta . However, Humayun could not conquer Bhakker or secure it. Thus, he left India and lived under the liberality of ShahTahmasebi of Persia.
  • Shah of Persia consented to help Humayun and loan him a power of 14,000 men on a condition to affirm to Shia doctrine, to have the Shah’s name announced in his Khutba and to part with Kandhar to him on his prosperity.
  • In 1545, with Persian assistance, Humayun caught Kandahar and Kabul however would not surrender Kandhar to Persia.
  • Humayun looked for help from the Iran ruler.
  • Afterward, he vanquished his siblings Kamran and Askari.
  • In 1555, Humayun vanquished the Afghans and recuperated the Mughal seat.
  • Following a half year, he passed on in 1556 because of his tumble from the flight of stairs of his library.
  • Humayun was caring and liberal, however, he was not a decent General and warrior.
  • He likewise adored artwork and composed verses in the Persian language.

The Sur Empire

  • Sher Shah was the founder of the Sur Dynasty.
  • His birth name was Farid.
  • He was the son of Hasan Khan, a jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar.
  • He was given the title Sher Khan for his valiance under the Afghan Rule of Bihar.

Sher Shah Sur (1486-1545)

  • Sher Shah Sur’s victories incorporate Bundelkhand, Malwa, Multan, Punjab, and Sind.
  • His domain involved the entire of North India with the exception of Assam, Gujarat, Kashmir, and Nepal.
  • In spite of the fact that his standard went on for just 5 years, he has sorted out a great regulatory framework.
  • The king was helped by four significant clergymen.

1. Diwan – I-Wizarat or Wazir – responsible for Revenue and Finance
2. Diwan-I-Ariz – responsible for Army
3. Diwan-I-Risalat – Foreign Minister
4. Diwan-I-Insha – Minister for Communications

  • Sher Shah’s domain was partitioned into forty-seven Sarkars
  • Each sarkar was additionally separated into different Parganas and responsible for different officials.

1. Shiqdar – Military Officer
2. Amin – Land Revenue
3. Fotedar – Treasurer
4. Karkuns – Accountants
5. Iqtas – different regulatory units

  • Under Sher Shah, the land revenue tax was efficient.
  • The land review was reasonably done.
  • All cultivable lands were classified into three classes – good, middle, and bad.
  • The state’s share was one-third of the average production and it was paid in cash or crop.
  • Sher Shah presented new silver coins called “Dam” and they were available for use till 1835.
  • Police were capability rebuilt and crime was less during his system.
  • Sher Shah had additionally built up the correspondences by laying four significant parkways.

1. Sonargaon to Sind
2. Agra to Berhampur
3. Jodhpur to Chittor
4. Lahore to Multan

  • Sher Shah stayed a devout Muslim and for the most part open-minded towards different religions.
  • He additionally utilized Hindus in significant workplaces.
  • The old stronghold called Purana Qila and its mosque was worked during his period.
  • He additionally assembled a Mausoleum at Sasaram, which is considered as one of the works of art of Indian design.
  • The well known Hindi work Padmavat by Malik Muhammad Jayasi was composed during his rule.
  • In 1545, Sher Shah passed on and his successors administered till 1555 later which Humayun reconquered India.

The Portuguese

  • Portuguese were the first Europeans who found a direct sea route to India.
  • Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama showed up at Calicut situated on the South-West India on May 20, 1498 AD.
  • King Zamorin received him and gave him certain benefits.
  • In the wake of remaining in India for a time of a quarter of a year, Vasco da Gama came back with a rich payload which he sold in the European market at an excessive value multiple times the expense of his journey.
  • In any case, soon Vasco da Gama returned to India for the second time in 1501 AD.
  • He set up an exchanging manufacturing plant at Cannanore. With the foundation of trading centres, Calicut, Cannanore, and Cochin rose to the critical Portuguese places in India.
  • Bedouin brokers got desirous of the ascent and accomplishment of the Portuguese and subsequently caused animosity between the Portuguese and the nearby lord Zamorin.
  • The threats developed and prompted the undeniable military go head to head between them. King Zamorin was vanquished by the Portuguese. With the triumph over Zamorin, the military prevalence of the Portuguese was set up.
  • In 1505 AD, Francisco de Almeida was selected as the first Portuguese governor.
  • His approach is driven to controlling the Indian Ocean was known as the Blue Water Policy.
  • Alfonso de Albuquerque who supplanted Almeida as the representative in 1509 AD, and caught Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 AD is viewed as the genuine author of the Portuguese force in India.
  • Goa in this manner turned into the home office of the Portuguese settlements in India.
  • Before the end of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese captured Goa, Daman, Diu, and Salsette .

Decline of Portuguese Power

However, the Portuguese ascent in Indian had a short life as the new opponent exchanging networks from Europe represented a major test to them.

Battle among different opponent exchanging alliances resulted in which Portuguese needed to offer a route to the more remarkable and ambitious contenders steadily delivering them a decayed substance.

Sikhism

  • The word ‘Sikh’ in the Punjabi language signifies ‘disciple’. Sikhs are the supporters of God who follow the compositions and lessons of the Ten Sikh Gurus.
  • Sikhs believe in one God. They remember God in all that they do. This is called simran.
  • There are more than 25 million Sikhs around the world, with the large part of them living in the Indian province of Punjab.
  • The Sikhs call their faith Gurmat (Punjabi: “the Way of the Guru”). As per Sikh convention, Sikhism was set up by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) and along these lines drove by a progression of nine different Gurus.
  • Every one of the 10 human Gurus, Sikhs accept, had a solitary soul. Upon the passing of the tenth, Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the soul of the everlasting Guru moved itself to the hallowed sacred text of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib (The Granth as the Guru), otherwise called the Adi Granth (First Volume), which from there on was viewed as the sole Guru.
  • Sikhism spread vastly during the hour of Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru. Master Arjan finished the foundation of Amritsar as the capital of the Sikh world and incorporated the main approved book of Sikh sacred writing, the Adi Granth.

Philosophy and Beliefs

  • There is only a single God (Ek Onkar “Ek” is One and “Onkar” is God). He is a similar God for all individuals everything being equal.
  • The spirit experiences patterns of births and death before it arrives as the human structure. An amazing objective is to lead a model presence so one may converge with God.
  • Sikhs ought to recollect God consistently and work on carrying on with a righteous and honest life while keeping up a harmony between their otherworldly commitments.
  • The genuine way to accomplish salvation and converging with God doesn’t require renunciation of the world or abstinence, yet carrying on with the life of a householder, gaining a legit living and maintaining a strategic distance from common enticements and sins.
  • Sikhism condemns blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.
  • Sikhism lectures that individuals of various races, religions, or sex are on the whole equivalent according to God. It shows the full balance of people. Women can participate in any religious function or perform any Sikh ceremony or lead the congregation in prayer.
  • Four Rituals: ”Sikh Rahit Maryada”, the manual that specifies the duties of Sikhs, names four rituals that qualify as rites of passage.

1. The first is a birth and naming ceremony, held in a gurdwara.
2. A second rite is the anand karaj (blissful union), or marriage ceremony.
3. The third rite—regarded as the most important—is the amrit sanskar, the ceremony for initiation into the Khalsa.
4. The fourth rite is the funeral ceremony.

  • The three duties that a Sikh must carry out can be summed up in three words; Pray, Work, Give.

1. Nam japna: Keeping God in mind at all times.
2. Kirt Karna: Earning an honest living. Since God is truth, a Sikh seeks to live honestly. This doesn’t just mean avoiding crime; Sikhs avoid gambling, begging, or working in the alcohol or tobacco industries.
3. Vand Chhakna: (Literally, sharing one’s earnings with others) Giving to charity and caring for others.

  • The five vices: Sikhs try to avoid the five vices that make people self-centered, and build barriers against God in their lives. These are lust, covetousness, and greed, attachment to things of this world, anger, and pride.
The Ten Sikh Gurus – Lineage Chart
The First MasterGuru Nanak(1469 to 1539)
The Second MasterGuru Angad(1504 to 1552)
The Third MasterGuru Amar Das(1479 to 1574)
The Fourth MasterGuru Ram Das(1534 to 1581)
The Fifth MasterGuru Arjan(1563 to 1606)
The Sixth MasterGuru Hargobind(1595 to 1644)
The Seventh MasterGuru Har Rai(1630 to 1661)
The Eighth MasterGuru Harkishan(1656 to 1664)
The Ninth MasterGuru Tegh Bahadur(1621 to 1675)
The Tenth MasterGuru Gobind Singh(1666 to 1708)
  • The Sikhs comprehend their religion as the result of five significant occasions.
  • The first was the instructing of Guru Nanak: His message of freedom through contemplation on the celestial name.
  • The second was the outfitting of the Sikhs by Guru Hargobind.
  • The third was Guru Gobind Singh’s establishing of the Khalsa, its unmistakable code to be seen by all who were started.
  • At his demise came the fourth occasion, the death of the enchanted Guru from its 10 human conveyors to the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • The last occasion occurred from the get-go in the twentieth century when Sikhism experienced a significant transformation on account of the Tat Khalsa.

Kabir

  • Kabir is a saint who impacted his time and holds incredible importance to current occasions.
  • Kabir’s initial life isn’t solidly settled. In Indian convention, he is regularly expected to have lived for a long time from 1398 to 1518, which “grants him to be related with different well-known figures, for example, Guru Nanak and Sikander Lodi”.
  • Kabir’s verse is an impression of his way of thinking about existence. His works were predominantly founded on the idea of rebirth and karma.
  • Kabir’s way of thinking about existence was obvious. He trusted in carrying on with life in an exceptionally oversimplified way. He had solid confidence in the idea of the unity of God and upheld the thought of Koi bole Ram Koi Khudai.
  • The fundamental thought was to spread the message that whether you serenade the name of Hindu God or Muslim God, the truth of the matter is that there is just a single God who is the maker of this lovely world.
  • Discussing the methods of reasoning and standards of Kabirdas, he was against the position framework forced by the Hindu people group and furthermore contradicted the possibility of reversing the icons.
  • Despite what might be expected, he upheld the Vedantic ideas of atman. He bolstered the possibility of moderate living that was upheld by the Sufis.
  • To have a clear idea about the philosophy of Sant Kabir, check out his poems and two-line verses known as dohas that speak his mind and soul.
  • He exhorted his supporters to surrender such barbaric practices as untouchability, sentiments of high and low, and so forth.
  • He further opposed the worship of stone images, or even the worship of different gods and goddesses and was against rituals and ceremonies in religion.
  • Kabir was against the act of fraud and didn’t care for individuals keeping up twofold principles. He generally lectured individuals to be humane towards other living creatures and practice genuine affection which is fairly absent in the present days.
  • He encouraged the need to have the organization of good individuals.
  • Emphasized that love was the only medium which could bind the entire humankind in an unbreakable bond of fraternity
  • He advised all to give up hatred and perpetuate love for one and all.
  • All living and nonliving things like bugs, creatures, trees, waterways, mountains, and individuals are just brief and all would stop to exist sometime in the future. He prompted his supporters not to regret the demise of something which will undoubtedly cause death.
  • Hence he emphasized that in this impermanent world, the only truth and permanent reality was God, who could be attained through Bhakti.

Guru Nanak

  • Guru Nanak was destined to Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta in Nankana Sahib close to Lahore in 1469. His dad was an accountant for crop income in the town. His family was Hindu.In 1475, Nanak went with his sister to Sultanpur where she moved after her marriage. This was a significant period of his life.
  • As indicated by Sikh conventions, Nanak’s youth filled numerous episodes that demonstrated his perfect calling.
  • According to Sikh custom, Nanak was an honored or enlightened soul. He isn’t viewed as a manifestation or even a prophet.
  • Nanak was keen on pursuing the sacred texts, everything being equal.
  • Nanak’s lessons are found in the Guru Granth Sahib, which is the heavenly book of the Sikhs.
    Guru Nanak contributed 974 songs in the Granth Sahib (which is respected as the eleventh Guru of Sikhism).
  • He emphasized Bhakti or love for god. He likewise emphasized that profound life and the legitimate existence of a householder need not be unmistakable.
  • Nanak requested that individuals lead a functioning, useful and inventive life dependent on honesty, poise, and virtue.
  • In mainstream convention, Nanak’s lessons are as:
  1. Vand Chakko – offering to others
  2. Kirat Karo – Earning a legitimate living
  3. Naam Japna – Meditating on God’s name
  • Guru Nanak visited a few spots both in India and abroad. He made a trip to Mecca, Multan, Baghdad, and even Tibet according to certain records. Accounts of Nanak’s life can be found in compositions called Janamsakhis.
  • Nanak’s successor as Bhai Lehna (renamed Guru Angad). He passed away on September 22nd, 1539 at 70. There were 8 living Gurus after Guru Angad. Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru.
  • Guru Nanak was one of the most significant and powerful characters in India’s history, aside from the Buddha and Mahavira. Sikhism is today trailed by around 25 million individuals around the world. It is one of the important religions of the world and is the ninth biggest among them.

Bhakti Movement

  • Bhakti was acknowledged as a way to accomplish moksha alongside jnana and karma. The improvement of this faction occurred in South India when the Nayanars and Alwars moved against the starknesses spread by the Buddhist and Jain schools and proclaimed that extreme commitment to god was the way to salvation.
  • Individuals were not, at this point, happy with a religion which underlined just services. The religion is the joined consequence of the lessons of different holy people.
  • Every one of them had their own perspectives, however, a definitive premise of the faction was an overall arousing against futile strict practices. The faction likewise developed as a solid stage against casteism.

The significant pioneers of the development are:

  • Namadeva and Ramananda (Maharashtra and Allahabad) – Both of them showed the idea of bhakti to all the four varnas and dismissed the restriction on individuals of various positions preparing together and sharing dinners.
  • Sankara and Ramanuja – The proponents of Advaita (non-duality) and vishishta Advaita (qualified non-duality) individually. They accepted god to be nirguna parabrahma and satguna parabrahma respectively.
  • Vallabhacharya – propounder of shuddha Advaita or unadulterated non-duality.
  • Chaitanya (Bengal) – relied on the utilization of music, movement, and bhajans to connect with God.
  • Kabir – was a follower of Ramananda, and raised by a Muslim weaver. He represented getting rid of all the pointless traditions and customs in the two religions and bringing relationship between these religions.
  • Nimbarkacharya – author of the Radha-Krishna cult. He communicated this connection to validate the significance of marriage. It was likewise utilized for instance of God’s affection to the individuals.
  • Mahanubhava Panth – All their holy books were written in the symbolic script, a key to decipher which was once provided for the first time with the aid of V.K Rajwade. Govinda Prabhu, a great mystic, used to be the founder of this cult, and Chakradhara its first apposite. Nagadeva geared up the cult on a systematic basis. Bhaskara, Kesavaraja Suri, Damodara Pandita, Visvanatha, and Narayana Pandita were, amongst others, the most discovered and necessary followers of the cult of the girl’s followers, Mahadamba was once an advanced mystic and a poetess of no mean order. The Mahanaubhavas were, in reality, the followers of the Bhagavata cult. They considered the Gita, the Bhagavata,and the Sutrapada(a collection of aphorisms of Chakradhar) as the standard and classical religious works.Sri Krishna and Dattatreya had been their prominent deities. Devotion to Krishna is, in their opinion, the only way to the realization of God.This was, therefore, chiefly a cult of Sri Krishna. But later they standard Dattatreya-a trinity in the team spirit of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, representing the ideas of creation, sustenance, and dissolution of the universe,with emphasis on Vishnu, or Vishnu as Krishna. Thus the Mahanubhava cult looks to combine the cult of Krishna, represented by way of the Nathas of Maharashtra, with that of Dattatreya, represented by means of Narasimha Saraswati and Janardana Swami.

Nayanars and Alwars

  • In South India the seventh to ninth century saw the rise of new strict developments, driven by the Nayanars (holy people committed to Shiva) and Alvars (holy people dedicated to Vishnu) who originated from all ranks including those considered “untouchable” like the Pulaiyar and the Panars.
  • They drew upon the standards of adoration and gallantry as found in the Sangam writing (Tamil writing).
  • Somewhere in the range of tenth and twelfth century, the Chola and Pandya rulers built many temples around the shrines visited by the saints, fortifying the connections between the bhakti custom and sanctuary venerate.

Basavanna’s Virashaivism

  • This development started in Karnataka in the twelfth century which contended for the fairness of every individual and against Brahmanical thoughts regarding position and the treatment of women.
  • They were additionally against all types of custom and idol worship.

Saints of Maharashtra

  • The most significant among them were Janeshwar, Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram just as women like Sakkubai and the group of Chokhamela, who had a place with the “distant” Mahar standing.
  • This provincial custom of bhakti concentrated on the Vitthala (a type of Vishnu) sanctuary in Pandharpur.
  • These saints dismissed all types of formality, outward presentation of devotion and social contrasts dependent on birth.
  • It is viewed as a humanist thought, as they demanded that bhakti lay in sympathizing with others’ agony.

Nathpanthis, Siddhas, and Yogis

  • They scrutinized the custom and different parts of customary religion and the social request, utilizing basic, sensible contentions.
  • They upheld renunciation of the world.
  • To them, the way to salvation lay in contemplation on the nebulous Ultimate Reality and the acknowledgment of unity with it.
  • To accomplish this they upheld exceptional preparing of the psyche and body through practices like yoga asanas, breathing activities, and reflection.
  • These gatherings turned out to be especially famous among “low” standings.

Literature

Below is the list of writers and books belonging to the Medieval period.

WritersBooks
KalhanRajatarangini
AlberuniTahqiq-i-hind or Kitab-ul-hind, jawahir-fil-jawahir
FirdausiShah Namah
Amoghavarsha IKavirajamarga

Ratnamalika

Passanotharamalika

Panipa IAdipurana

Vikramarajunavijaya

PonnaSantipurana
RannaAjith Anthapuram

Gandhyaudha

TrivikramaNalachampu
HalayudhaKaviarasu
Manikya NandanPariksha Ka Shastra

Nyayakaumudichandrodaya

Sandhyakar NandiRampal Charitha
SakatyanaAmogha Vritti
ViracharyaGanita Sara samgrahaka
RajashekharKarpuramanjari

Kavyamimamsa

Bali Ramayana

Viddasala bhanjika

DhoyiPavandutam
SriharshaVijay Prasasti
BallalDanasagar

Adbhutsagar

BilhanaVikramankadevachitra
JayadevaGitagovinda
GovardhanaArya saptashati
LaxmidharKritya Kalpataru
Nanniah

Tikanna

Yerrapragada

Mahabharata (Telugu)
AtulaMushika vamsa
KambanaRamayana (tamil)
Bhaskara IILilawati
Vigrahraj IVHarikelinataka
SomadevaLaithaviraharaja
JagnikAlha Khand
ChandbardaiPrithviraj Raso
Jayanka BhattPrithivrajavijaya
Bhoja (Parmara king)Ayurveda Sarvasa

Samarangana Sutradhara

Sabda Usana

Vyavahara Samuchaya

Yukti Kalpataru

Hemachandra SuriTrishashthi Shalaka

Purusha Charitra

Parashistaparvan

Siddha Hema Vyakaran

BhattabhuvandadevAparajit Prichha
Abu BakrChachnama
Someswar IIIManasollasa
VijananeshwarMitakshara
TimutvahanDayabhaga
DevanabhattaSmriti Chandrika
VajrasattvaLokeshwarasataka
Jayan gondavkalingattuparani

Conclusion

A significant milestone in the social history of medieval India was the quiet transformation in the public arena realized by a world of socio-strict reformers, an upheaval known as the Bhakti Movement.

This development was answerable for some ceremonies and customs related to the love of God by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs of the Indian subcontinent. The best thing that has happened in the 15th and 16th is this movement. This brought a lot of changes in society and it is still followed today.

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