Deep Dive into Hadoop YARN Resource Manager – A comprehensive Guide & Tutorial 2

1. Objective

In this Hadoop Yarn Resource Manager tutorial, we will discuss What is Yarn Resource Manager, different components of RM, what is application manager and scheduler. We will discuss the internals of data flow, security, how resource manager allocates resources, how it interacts with yarn node manager and client.

Hadoop YARN Resource Manager comprehensive Guide Tutorial

2. Hadoop YARN Resource Manager – Introduction

The Resource Manager is the core component of YARN – Yet Another Resource Negotiator. In analogy, it occupies the place of JobTracker of MRV1. Hadoop YARN is designed to provide a generic and flexible framework to administer the computing resources in the Hadoop cluster. In this direction, the YARN Resource Manager Service (RM) is the central controlling authority for resource management and makes allocation decisions ResourceManager has two main components: Scheduler and ApplicationsManager.

The Scheduler API is specifically designed to negotiate resources and not schedule tasks. The scheduler does not perform monitoring or tracking of status for the Applications. The Scheduler performs its scheduling function based the resource requirements of the applications; it does so base on the abstract notion of a resource Container which incorporates elements such as memory, CPU, disk, network etc. Resource Manager does not guarantee about restarting failed tasks either due to application failure or hardware failures. Applications can request resources at different layers of the cluster topology such as nodes, racks etc. The scheduler determines how much and where to allocate based on resource availability and the configured sharing policy.

The Scheduler has a pluggable policy plug-in, which is responsible for partitioning the cluster resources among the various queues, applications etc. The current Map-Reduce schedulers such as the CapacityScheduler and the FairScheduler would be some examples of the plug-in ApplicationsManager is responsible for maintaining a collection of submitted applications. It accepts a job from the client and negotiates for a container to execute the application specific ApplicationMaster and it provide the service for restarting the ApplicationMaster in the case of failure. It also keeps a cache of completed applications so as to serve users’ requests via web UI or command line long after the applications in question finished. Though the above two are the core component, for its complete functionality the Resource Manager depend on various other components. The detailed architecture with these components is shown in below diagram.
 Hadoop YARN Resource Manager

Source: Hortonworks

Before working on Yarn You must have Hadoop Installed, follow this Comprehensive Guide to Install and Run Hadoop 2 with YARN

3. Yarn Resource Manager Components

RM works together with the per-node NodeManagers (NMs) and the per-application ApplicationMasters (AMs). ResourceManager Components The ResourceManager has the following components (see the figure above):

3.1. Components interfacing RM to the client

a. ClientService

The client interface to the Resource Manager. This component handles all the RPC interfaces to the RM from the clients including operations like application submission, application termination, obtaining queue information, cluster statistics etc.

b. AdminService

To make sure that admin requests don’t get starved due to the normal users’ requests and to give the operators’ commands the higher priority, all the admin operations like refreshing node-list, the queues’ configuration etc. are served via this separate interface.

3.2. Components connecting RM to the nodes

a. ResourceTrackerService

This is the component that obtains heartbeats from nodes in the cluster and forwards them to YarnScheduler. Responds to RPCs from all the nodes, registers new nodes, rejecting requests from any invalid/decommissioned nodes, It works closely with NMLivelinessMonitor and NodesListManager.

b. NMLivelinessMonitor

To keep track of live nodes and dead nodes. This component keeps track of each node’s its last heartbeat time. Any node that doesn’t send a heartbeat within a configured interval of time, by default 10 minutes, is deemed dead and is expired by the RM. All the containers currently running on an expired node are marked as dead and no new containers are scheduling on such node.

c. NodesListManager

Manages valid and excluded nodes. Responsible for reading the host configuration files and seeding the initial list of nodes based on those files. Keeps track of nodes that are decommissioned as time progresses.

3.3. Components interacting with the per-application AMs

a. ApplicationMasterService

Services the RPCs from all the AMs like registration of new AMs, termination/unregister-requests from any finishing AMs, obtaining container-allocation & deallocation requests from all running AMs and forward them over to the YarnScheduler. ApplicationMasterService and AMLivelinessMonitor work together to maintain the fault tolerance of Application Masters.

b. AMLivelinessMonitor

Maintains the list of live AMs and dead/non-responding AMs, It responsibility to is to keep track of live AMs, it usually tracks the AMs dead or alive with the help of heartbeats, and register and de-register the AMs from the Resource manager. All the containers currently running/allocated to an AM that gets expired are marked as dead.

3.4. The core of the ResourceManager – the scheduler and related components

a. ApplicationsManager

Responsible for maintaining a collection of submitted applications. Also, keeps a cache of completed applications so as to serve users’ requests via web UI or command line long after the applications in question finished.

b. ApplicationACLsManager

RM needs to gate the user facing APIs like the client and admin requests to be accessible only to authorized users. This component maintains the ACLs lists per application and enforces them whenever a request like killing an application, viewing an application status is received.

c. ApplicationMasterLauncher

Maintains a thread-pool to launch AMs of newly submitted applications as well as applications whose previous AM attempts exited due to some reason. Also responsible for cleaning up the AM when an application has finished normally or forcefully terminated.

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d. YarnScheduler

Yarn Scheduler is responsible for allocating resources to the various running applications subject to constraints of capacities, queues etc. It performs its scheduling function based on the resource requirements of the applications such as memory, CPU, disk, network etc. Currently, only memory is supported and support for CPU is close to completion.

e. ContainerAllocationExpirer

This component is in charge of ensuring that all allocated containers are used by AMs and subsequently launched on the correspond NMs. AMs run as untrusted user code and can potentially hold on to allocations without using them, and as such can cause cluster under-utilization. To address this, ContainerAllocationExpirer maintains the list of allocated containers that are still not used on the corresponding NMs. For any container, if the corresponding NM doesn’t report to the RM that the container has started running within a configured interval of time, by default 10 minutes, the container is deemed as dead and is expired by the RM.

3.5. TokenSecretManagers (for security)

Hadoop Yarn ResourceManager has a collection of SecretManagers which are given the charge/responsibility of managing tokens, secret keys that are used to authenticate/authorize requests on various RPC interfaces. A brief summary follows:

a. ApplicationTokenSecretManager

RM uses the per-application tokens called ApplicationTokens to avoid arbitrary processes from sending RM scheduling requests. This component saves each token locally in memory till application finishes and uses it to authenticate any request coming from a valid AM process.

b. ContainerTokenSecretManager

RM issues special tokens called Container Tokens to ApplicationMaster(AM) for a container on the specific node. These tokens are used by AM to create a connection with NodeManager having the container in which job runs.

c. RMDelegationTokenSecretManager

A ResourceManager specific delegation-token secret-manager. It is responsible for generating delegation tokens to clients which can be passed on to unauthenticated processes that wish to be able to talk to RM.

3.6. DelegationTokenRenewer

In secure mode, RM is Kerberos authenticated and so provides the service of renewing file-system tokens on behalf of the applications. This component renews tokens of submitted applications as long as the application runs and till the tokens can no longer be renewed.

The responsibility and functionalities of the NameNode and DataNode remained the same as in MRV1. The below block diagram summarizes the execution flow of job in YARN framework.
 Hadoop YARN Resource Manager-Yarn Framework

Source: IBM

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